Surveillance & Society 2018-04-03T19:50:43-04:00 Prof. Torin Monahan Open Journal Systems <p>The international, interdisciplinary, open access, peer-reviewed journal of Surveillance Studies.</p> Algorithmic Fetishism 2018-04-03T19:50:36-04:00 Torin Monahan <p>Surveillance-infused forms of algorithmic discrimination are beginning to capture public and scholarly attention. While this is an encouraging development, this editorial questions the parameters of this emerging discussion and cautions against algorithmic fetishism. I characterize <em>algorithmic fetishism</em> as the pleasurable pursuit of opening the black box, discovering the code hidden inside, exploring its beauty and flaws, and explicating its intricacies. It is a technophilic desire for arcane knowledge that can never be grasped completely, so it continually lures one forward into technical realms while deferring the point of intervention. The editorial concludes with a review of the articles in this open issue.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2018-04-01T15:11:05-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## It’s the Camera! A Special One: The Smartboxing of Image Processing Algorithms and their Uncertainties in Media Representations of Surveillance Technology 2018-04-03T19:50:36-04:00 Christoph Musik <p>This paper presents an analysis of media articles and publicly available documents on one of Austria’s first nationwide surveillance systems in operation that makes use of image processing, pattern recognition technology: the “Automatic Toll Sticker Checks” on Austrian motorways. A recurring narrative makes the camera, not the silent image processing algorithms (IPAs), the centre of attention. IPAs and their inevitable uncertainties are completely disregarded and “smartboxed” in favour of the special camera that appears as magic technology. As such, the ready-made smart box is not contested at all. Instead, its economic success and standing as a moral agent is emphasised.</p> 2018-04-01T15:21:08-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Crowdsourced Countersurveillance: A Countersurveillant Assemblage? 2018-04-03T19:50:37-04:00 Mark Andrew Wood Chrissy Thompson <p>Speed camera ‘traps’, random breath testing (RBT) stations, and other forms of mobile traffic surveillance have long been circumvented by motorists. However, as technologies for traffic surveillance have developed, so too have technologies enabling individuals to monitor and countersurveil these measures. One of the most recent forms of these countersurveillance platforms can be found on Facebook, where dedicated regional and national RBT and ‘police presence’ pages publicly post the locations of various forms of police surveillance in real-time. In this article, we argue that Facebook RBT pages exemplify a new form of social media facilitated countersurveillance we term crowdsourced countersurveillance: the use of knowledge-discovery and management crowdsourcing to facilitate surveillance discovery, avoidance, and countersurveillance. Crowdsourced countersurveillance, we argue, represents a form of countersurveillant assemblage: an ensemble of individuals, technologies, and data flows that, more than the sum of their parts, function together to neutralize surveillance measures. Facilitated by affordances for crowdsourcing, aggregating, and crowdmapping geographical data information on surveillance actors, crowdsourced countersurveillance provides a means of generating ‘hybrid heterotopias’: mediated counter-sites that enable individuals to contest and circumvent surveilled spatial arrangements.</p> 2018-04-01T15:24:02-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Security against Surveillance: IT Security as Resistance to Pervasive Surveillance 2018-04-03T19:50:38-04:00 Mike Zajko <p>This paper examines Five Eyes surveillance programs as a threat to IT (Information Technology) security and IT security as resistance to these programs. I argue that the most significant of Snowden's disclosures have been the Five Eyes agencies’ systematic compromise of the technologies, networks, and standards in use within their own countries and abroad. Attacks on domestic infrastructure contradict the defensive posture of these agencies but are consistent with the project of cyber security as defined by the Five Eyes. The cyber security project of the Five Eyes nations is expansive in scope and has proceeded along dangerous lines. By assigning signals intelligence agencies the dual role of exploiting IT systems as well as securing them, a contradiction has been baked into our evolving notion of cyber security. A comprehensive response should include political and legal reforms, disentangling the Five Eyes' offensive and defensive roles, and narrowing the scope of the cyber security project. However, the most effective forms of resistance for individuals and institutions so far have been through an increased emphasis on IT security practices.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2018-04-01T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Eyes of Law Enforcement in the New Panopticon: Police-Community Racial Asymmetry and the Use of Surveillance Technology 2018-04-03T19:50:39-04:00 Josh A. Hendrix Travis A. Taniguchi Kevin J. Strom Kelle A. Barrick Nicole J. Johnson <p>This study examines the relationship between police-community racial asymmetry and the use of surveillance technology by local law enforcement. The data come from a nationally representative survey of law enforcement agencies, with supplementary information provided by the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics Survey, the Census, and the Uniform Crime Reports. Results indicate that police departments that underrepresent African Americans in the community are more likely to use or plan to implement surveillance technology, controlling for a range of agency-and contextual-level factors. One potential explanation for these findings is that surveillance technology operates as a form of social control that is differentially applied to racial minorities to manage what is perceived to be a greater proclivity toward criminal behavior. The implications of these findings are discussed.</p> 2018-04-01T15:20:25-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The All-Seeing Eye of State Surveillance in the Italian Football (Soccer) Terraces: The Case Study of the Football Fan Card 2018-04-03T19:50:40-04:00 Alberto Testa <p>The football (soccer) stadium in Italy has been, since its origin, not only a ludic space but also a symbolic setting that has often reflected national socio-political issues such as the country’s north/south economic and political divide, the existence of organized crime, the promotion of radical political ideologies, and, concomitantly, racism and homophobia. In such a milieu, the spectacle of football can suddenly shift to symbolic and factual violence. One of the main tools of the complex Italian counter hooliganism model (CHM) is the <em>Tessera del tifoso</em>, a compulsory fan ID scheme adopted in 2009 to curb football spectator violence. This paper attempts to systematically evaluate this scheme for the first time, adopting as its conceptual frame Giorgio Agamben’s concepts of the state of exception, bare life, the (concentration) camp, and <em>dispositivo</em> (apparatus). It is argued that the <em>Tessera del tifoso</em> serves as a most prominent example of a CHM based on a permanent state of exception manifested by an increase in State surveillance, control, and regulation of fans’ lives with potential implications for their civil liberties and freedom.</p> 2018-04-01T15:21:48-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Soiveillance: Self-Consciousness and the Social Network in Hideaki Anno’s Love & Pop 2018-04-03T19:50:41-04:00 Jeeshan Gazi <p>This article analyses the surveillance aesthetic of Hideaki Anno’s 1998 film <em>Love &amp; Pop</em>. It is proposed that the film communicates the concept of “soiveillance”—a watching (<em>veillance</em>) that is of one’s self (<em>soi</em>). What underpins soiveillance is the paranoia associated with social surveillance (Marwick 2012), specifically the self-consciousness involved in the image sharing that constructs the virtual self of the social media user (Willett 2009). With its theme of <em>enjo kosai</em>—or “paid-dates” between adult males and female teenagers—<em>Love &amp; Pop’s</em> communication of soiveillance further illuminates the impact of one’s gender status within the social network, and the manner in which real-world patriarchy and misogyny pass into the virtual construction of selves. The methodology used to argue these points rests on a reconfigured take on the term “scopophilia” within the study of visual media. Scopophilia, rethought as a love of vision itself, aligns with Murakami’s (2000) theory of the superflat on three key points: the acknowledgment that emerging technologies have created new image-functions and image-structures that require a broadening of our theoretical vocabulary; an atemporal approach to the reading of images, such that a late-nineties film like Anno’s can provide important insights into 21<sup>st</sup> century concerns; and a recognition of intermedial convergence, which allows us to read the activity of online video sharing as a form of narrative equivalent to the sequencing of shots within a cinematic montage.</p> 2018-04-01T15:19:09-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Wills' Tug of War: Surveillance Capitalism, Military Contracting, and the Rise of the Security State 2018-04-03T19:50:37-04:00 Gregg Barak 2018-04-01T15:36:28-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Schneider's Policing and Social Media: Social Control in an Era of New Media 2018-04-03T19:50:38-04:00 Andrew Crosby 2018-04-01T15:37:45-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Haque's Surveillance, Transparency, and Democracy: Public Administration in the Information Age 2018-04-03T19:50:39-04:00 Ozge Girgin 2018-04-01T15:39:09-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Wise's Surveillance and Film 2018-04-03T19:50:39-04:00 Steven Kohm 2018-04-01T15:40:12-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Ferguson's The Rise of Big Data Policing: Surveillance, Race, and the Future of Law Enforcement 2018-04-03T19:50:40-04:00 Aaron Shapiro 2018-04-01T15:41:27-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Schuilenberg's The Securitization of Society: Crime, Risk, and Social Order 2018-04-03T19:50:42-04:00 James Sheptycki 2018-04-01T15:42:32-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Molinaro's An Exceptional Law: Section 98 and the Emergency State, 1919-1936 2018-04-03T19:50:42-04:00 Derek M.D. Silva 2018-04-01T15:43:31-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Lauer's Creditworthy: A History of Consumer Surveillance and Financial Identity in America 2018-04-03T19:50:42-04:00 Sachil Singh 2018-04-01T15:44:40-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Sunaina Marr's The 9/11 Generation: Youth, Rights, and Solidarity in the War on Terror 2018-04-03T19:50:42-04:00 Valerie Stam 2018-04-01T15:45:44-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Dallek's Defenseless under the Night: The Roosevelt Years and the Origins of Homeland Security 2018-04-03T19:50:43-04:00 Gregory S Kealey 2018-04-01T16:18:41-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##