The All-Seeing Eye of State Surveillance in the Italian Football (Soccer) Terraces: The Case Study of the Football Fan Card

Main Article Content

Alberto Testa

Abstract

The football (soccer) stadium in Italy has been, since its origin, not only a ludic space but also a symbolic setting that has often reflected national socio-political issues such as the country’s north/south economic and political divide, the existence of organized crime, the promotion of radical political ideologies, and, concomitantly, racism and homophobia. In such a milieu, the spectacle of football can suddenly shift to symbolic and factual violence. One of the main tools of the complex Italian counter hooliganism model (CHM) is the Tessera del tifoso, a compulsory fan ID scheme adopted in 2009 to curb football spectator violence. This paper attempts to systematically evaluate this scheme for the first time, adopting as its conceptual frame Giorgio Agamben’s concepts of the state of exception, bare life, the (concentration) camp, and dispositivo (apparatus). It is argued that the Tessera del tifoso serves as a most prominent example of a CHM based on a permanent state of exception manifested by an increase in State surveillance, control, and regulation of fans’ lives with potential implications for their civil liberties and freedom.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Agamben, Giorgio. 1996. Mezzi Senza Fine. Note Sulla Politica. Torino, IT: Bollati Boringhieri.

Agamben, Giorgio. 1998. Quel Che Resta di Auschwitz. Torino, IT: Bollati Boringhieri.

Agamben, Giorgio. 2001. La Comunita' Che Viene. Torino, IT: Bollati Boringhieri.

Agamben, Giorgio. 2003a. L' ordine Come Disordine Totale: Stato e Terrore, un Abbraccio Funesto. In Biopolitica Minore, ed P. Perticari, 185-187. Roma, IT: Manifestolibri.

Agamben, Giorgio. 2003b. Lo Stato di Eccezione. Torino, IT: Bollati Boringhieri.

Agamben, Giorgio. 2005. Homo Sacer: Il Potere Sovrano e la Nuda Vita. Torino, IT: Einaudi.

Agamben, Giorgio. 2006. Che Cosa e' un Dispositivo. Roma, IT: Nottetempo.

Ajana, Btihaj. 2010. Recombinant Identities: Biometrics and Narrative Bioethics. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (2): 237-258.

Associazione Calciatori. 2015. Calciatori sotto tiro-Rapporto 2015/16. Accessed February 26, 2017. http://www.assocalciatori.it/news/calciatori-sotto-tiro-rapporto-201516

Associazione Calciatori. 2017. Calciatori sotto tiro-Rapporto 2015/16. Accessed February 26, 2017. http://www.assocalciatori.it/news/calciatori-sotto-tiro-rapporto-201516

Bazzucchi, Mauro. Calcio e Criminalita, Gabrielli. Huffington Post, March 5. https://www.huffingtonpost.it/2017/05/03/calcio-e-criminalita-gabrielli-a-roma-il-27-degli-abbonati-in_a_22067507/?utm_hp_ref=it-homepage

Bennett, S., Farrington, D. and Huesmann, L. 2005. Explaining Gender Differences in Crime and Violence: The Importance of Social Cognitive Skills. Aggression and Violent Behaviour 10: 263-288.

Bianchi, Fulvio. 2012. Addio Alla Tessera Del Tifoso Arriva La "Fidelity Card." La Repubblica Online, March 12. http://www.repubblica.it/sport/calcio/2012/03/12/news/addio_tessera_tifoso-31407712/

Blitz Quotidiano. 2010. “Daspo” e “Arresti” Per Chi Manifesta: Maroni e Gasparri Si Sono Dimenticati Di Quando i “Black Bloc” Erano Loro? Accessed July 13, 2014. https://www.blitzquotidiano.it/politica-italiana/daspo-arresti-maroni-gasparri-blackbloc-687955/

Bozbeyoğlu, Alanur. 2005. Citizenship Rights in a Surveillance Society: The Case of the Electronic ID Card in Turkey. Surveillance & Society 9 (4): 64-79.

Browne, Simone. 2005. Getting Carded: Border Control and the Politics of Canada's Permanent Resident Card. Citizenship Studies 9 (4): 423-438.

CalcioNews24. 2009. Uefa, Platini contro la Tessera del Tifoso. September 10. https://www.calcionews24.com/uefa-platini-contro-la-tessera-del-tifoso-72690/

Censis. 2017. Stadi Belli e Ben Gestiti per Rilanciare il Calcio. Comunicati Stampa.Accessed February 10, 2017. http://www.censis.it/7?shadow_comunicato_stampa=121099

Custodero, Alberto. 2015. Calcio, Aumenta la Violenza Negli Stadi. La Repubblica Online, December 19. http://www.repubblica.it/cronaca/2015/12/19/news/calcio_dati_daspo-129752720/

Custodero, Alberto. 2016. Sangue Infetto, La Corte Europea Dei Diritti Umani : Risarcire 350 Cittadini. La Repubblica Online. January 14. http://www.repubblica.it/salute/2016/01/14/news/sangue_infetto_la_corte_europea_dei_diritti_umani-131240280/?refresh_ce

Diken, Bulent and Carsten Laustsen Bagge. 2002. Zones of Indistinction; Security, Terror and Bare life. Space and Culture 5 (3): 290-307.

Edwardes, Cheryl, Ian Hosein, and Edgar Whitley. 2007. Balance, Scrutiny and Identity Cards in the UK. Criminal Justice Matters 68 (1): 29-30.

Federsupporter. 2017. Il Ruolo del Supporter Liaison Officer (SLO). Il Delegato ai Rapporti con la Tifoseria. Roma, IT: Federsupporter

Ferrari, Giovanni. 2007. The Cambridge Companion to Plato's Republic. London: Cambridge University Press.

FIGC. 2014. Approvato il Decreto Antiviolenza Sulla Sicurezza Negli Stadi. Mano Dura del Governo. Accessed October 10, 2015. http://www.figc.it/en/204/2525141/2014/08/News.shtml

Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and Punish. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Pantheon Books.

Foucault, Michel. 1978. The History of Sexuality Volume One: An Introduction. New York: Vintage Books.

Garofalo, Luigi. 2005. Studi Sulla Sacertà. Padova: Cedam.

Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang and Sarah Shannon. 2005. Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qualitative Health Research 15 (9): 1277-1288.

Huysmans, Jef and Anastassia Tsoukala. 2008. Special Issue of Alternatives: Global, Local, Political: The Social Construction and Control of Danger in Counterterrorism. London: Lynne.

Il Fatto Quotidiano. 2014. Finale Coppa Italia, Spari Contro Tifosi Del Napoli: Uno Grave. Fermato Ultra Roma. May 3. http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2014/05/03/finale-coppa-italia-scontri-prima-di-fiorentina-napoli-quattro-feriti-due-gravissimi/972292/.

La Gazzetta dello Sport Online. 2009. Tessera Del Tifoso: Ci Siamo Ecco Come Funzionerà - Risultati e Ultime Notizie Calcio e Calciomercato. September 18. http://www.gazzetta.it/Calcio/SerieA/18-09-2009/tessera-tifoso-ci-siamo-501331319150.shtml?refresh_ce-cp

Il Sole 24 Ore. 2014. Sicurezza, Alfano: Oggi Presenterò Piano Per Roma. Ultrà: Nessuna Trattativa Con i Violenti. May 6. http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/notizie/2014-05-06/sicurezza-alfano-oggi-presentero-piano-roma-094055.shtml?uuid=ABlo92FB&refresh_ce=1

La Repubblica Online. 2012, Calcio, Manganelli: Tessera Tifoso Manterra' Sue Caratteristiche. Accessed July 12, 2014. ttp://sport.repubblica.it/news/sport/calcio-manganelli-tessera-tifoso-manterra-sue-caratteristiche/4129786?refresh_cens

Lyon, David. 2007. Surveillance Studies: An Overview. Cambridge, MA: Polity.

Murakami Wood, David, Kirstie Ball, David Lyon, Clive Norris, and Charles Raab. 2006. A Report on the Surveillance Society. Surveillance Studies Network, UK.

Osservatorio Nazionale Sulle Manifestazioni Sportive. 2018. Gennaio 2018: Girone di Andata dei Campionati di Calcio. https://www.osservatoriosport.interno.gov.it/?uamfiletype=attachment&uamgetfile=https://www.osservatoriosport.interno.gov.it/web/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Report-girone-di-andata-stagione-2017-2018.pdf

Owen, Gregory. 2014. Qualitative Methods in Higher Education Policy Analysis: Using Interviews and Document Analysis. The Qualitative Report. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR19/owen52.pdf

Pasqualino, Ivano. 2017. Se Perdete Vi Ammazziamo: La Violenza nel Calcio. Sky Sport Online, February 7. https://sport.sky.it/calcio/serie-a/2017/02/07/calciatori-aggrediti-minacce-violenza-ultras-report-aic-dati.html

Pellizzari, Dario. 2011. Consiglio Di Stato Boccia La Tessera Del Tifoso Illegittima, è Pratica Commerciale Scorretta, Il Fatto Quotidiano, December 14. http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2011/12/14/consiglio-stato-boccia-tessera-tifoso-illegittima-pratica-commerciale-scorretta/177459/.

Pizzetti, Francesco. 2010. Tessera Del Tifoso: Più Garanzie Per i Supporter. Garante per la Protezione dei Dati Personali, November 10. http://www.garanteprivacy.it/web/guest/home/docweb/-/docweb-display/docweb/1779725

Potter, W. James, and Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah. 1999. Rethinking Validity and Reliability in Content Analysis. Journal of Applied Communication Research 27: 258-284.

Pullen, Suzanne. 1996. Evaluation of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation Cognitive Skills Development Program as Implemented in Juvenile ISP in Colorado. Boulder, CO: Division of Criminal Justice

RAI News Online. 2016. Assalto a Un Bar a Roma Dopo La Partita Juventus-Milan. May 2. http://www.rainews.it/dl/rainews/articoli/Assalto-un-a-bar-Roma-dopo-la-partita-Juventus-Milan-2-accoltellati-gravi-arrestato-un-tifoso-31d95bd5-f96f-402a-a4bf-30c91bafcc55.html

Rabinow, Paul and Nikolas Rose. 2003. Thoughts on the Concept of Biopower Today. Last modified December 10, 2003. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228606732_Thoughts_on_a_Concept_of_Biopower_Today

Rabinow, Paul and Nikolas Rose. 2006. Biopower Today. Biosocieties 1 (2): 195-217.

Robinson, David. 1995. The Impact of Cognitive Skills Training on Post-Release recidivism among Canadian Federal Offenders (Research Rep. No. R-41). Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada.

Rose, Nikolas. 2000. Government and Control. British Journal of Criminology 40: 321-339.

Savà, Peppe. 2012. Giorgio Agamben, Intervista a Peppe Savà: Amo Scicli e Guccione. Ragusa News, August 16. accessed https://www.ragusanews.com/articolo/28021/giorgio-agamben-intervista-a-peppe-sava-amo-scicli-e-guccione

Schmitt, Carl. 2006. Political Theology. Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty. Translated by George Schwab. Chicago: University Chicago Press.

Senza Soste. 2010. Dopo La Tessera Del Tifoso, Quella Del Manifestante: Il Regime Ci Prova. Accessed July 13, 2014. http://www.senzasoste.it/tifo/dopo-la-tessera-del-tifoso-quella-del-manifestante-il-regime-ci-prov

Sergi, Anna. 2015. Divergent Mind-Sets, Convergent Policies: Policing Models against Organized Crime in Italy and in England within International Frameworks. European Journal of Criminology 12 (6): 658-680.

Shepherd, Joanna. 2002. Fear of the First Strike: The Full Deterrent Effect of California’s Two‐ and Three‐Strikes Legislation. The Journal of Legal Studies 31 (1): 59-201.

RAI News Online. 2015. Sicurezza, Alfano e il DASPO per i Cortei. accessed March 3, 2016. http://www.rainews.it/dl/rainews/articoli/Sicurezza-Alfano-Per-i-cortei-divieti-preventivi-come-per-le-partite-di-calcio- b4792435-543a-457b-89c4-4d17fca5c5dc.html

Sky Sport-Online. 2013. Calcio Violento, Alfano: "Pugno Duro e Una Task Force. November 18. http://sport.sky.it/sport/calcio_italiano/2013/11/18/lotta_al_calcio_violento_ministro_alfano_linee_guida.html

Sky Sport Online. 2017. Pescara, Bruciate 2 Auto del Presidente Sebastiani. February 7. https://sport.sky.it/calcio/serie-a/2017/02/07/pescara-incendiata-auto-presidente-sebastiani.html

Spaaiji, Ramon, and Alberto Testa. 2016. Hooliganism. In Routledge Handbook of Football Studies, eds John Hughson, Kevin Moore, R. Spaaij, Joseph Maguire, 364-374. London: Routledge.

Stott, Cliff, Owen West, and Mathew Radbur. 2018. Policing Football “Risk?” A Participant Action Research Case Study of a Liaison-Based Approach to “Public Order.” Policing and Society 28 (1): 1-16.

Telenord-Online. 2014. Incontro Pubblico in Senato Sulla Tessera Del Tifoso, Comunicato Della Gradinata Nord. April 2. http://telenord.it/2014/04/02/incontro-pubblico-in-senato-sulla-tessera-del-tifoso-comunicato-della-gradinata-nord/

Testa, Alberto, and Anna Sergi. 2018, in press. Corruption, Mafia Power and Italian Soccer. London: Routledge.

Testa, Alberto. 2013. Normalization of the Exception: Issues and Controversies of the Italian Counter-Hooliganism Legislation. Sport in Society 16 (2): 151-156.

Testa, Alberto. 2010. Purity and Danger: Policing the Italian Neo-Fascist Football Ultras. Criminal Justice Studies 23 (3): 219– 237.

Testa, Alberto, and Gary Armstrong. 2008. Words and Actions: Italian Ultra and Neo-Fascism, Social Identities 14 (4): 473-490.

Testa, Alberto, and Gary Armstrong. 2010. Football, Fascism and Fandom: The Ultras of Italian Football. London: A&C Black.

Travis, Alan. 2015. People Who Carry Knives to be Jailed Under 'Two Strikes' Rule. The Guardian, July 7. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/jul/07/two-strikes-rule-jailing-carry-knives

UEFA. 2011. UEFA Supporter Liaison Officer. Nyon: UEFA.

Walters, G. D. 1999. Short-Term Outcome of Inmates Participating in the Lifestyle Change Program. Criminal Justice and Behavior 26 (4): 322-337.

Zucchelli, C. 2013. Romanisti Cattivi, Away Card Sospesa A Livorno Solo Con La Tessera Del Tifoso. Gazzetta dello Sport, August 20. http://www.forzaroma.info/rassegna-stampa/la-gazzetta-dello-sport/romanisti-cattivi-away-card-sospesa-a-livorno-solo-con-la-tessera-del-tifoso/253515/?refresh_ce-cp