Surveillance and Drones at Greek Borderzones: Challenging Human Rights and Democracy

Main Article Content

Panagiotis Loukinas

Abstract

The planned intensification of surveillance, including the use of drones, at the Greek borders will increase uncertainty at Greek borderzones as regards the protection of human rights, which are already under threat due to the existing high levels of surveillance. This includes both the human rights of migrants and refugees as well as the right to privacy of the populations already resident in these areas. The curtailment of these rights constitutes a threat to individuals’ liberties and democratic values. This further problematizes the situation in Greece, where the popularity of far-right has risen, while anti-immigrant rhetoric has been diffused in the practices and policies of border surveillance.

Article Details

How to Cite
LOUKINAS, Panagiotis. Surveillance and Drones at Greek Borderzones: Challenging Human Rights and Democracy. Surveillance & Society, [S.l.], v. 15, n. 3/4, p. 439-446, aug. 2017. ISSN 1477-7487. Available at: <https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/6613>. Date accessed: 17 oct. 2017.
Keywords
Border Surveillance; Drones; Greece; Human Rights; Privacy; Democracy
Section
Articles

References

Aas, Katja F. and Helene O.I. Gundhus. 2015. “Policing Humanitarian Borderlands: Frontex, Human Rights and the Precariousness of Life.” British Journal of Criminology 55(1): 1-18.

Amnesty International. 2017. “A Blueprint for Despair: Human Rights Impact of the EU-Turkey Deal.” London: Amnesty International Ltd. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at:
https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/eur25/5664/2017/en/

Ball, Kirstie and Frank Webster. 2003. “The intensification of surveillance.” In The Intensification of Surveillance: crime, terrorism and warfare in the information era, edited by Kirstie Ball and Frank Webster, 1-15. London: Pluto Press.

Barry, Tom. 2013. “Homeland Security Drones Mission Creep from Border Security to National Security.” Borderlines Blog, March 2013. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: http://borderlinesblog.blogspot.be/2013/03/homeland-security- drones-mission-creep.html

Bigo, Didier. 2006. “Globalized (in)Security: The Field and the Ban-opticon.” In Illiberal Practices of Liberal Regimes: The (In)Security Games, edited by Didier Bigo and Anastassia Tsoukala, 5-49. Paris: L’ Harmattan.

Bigo, Didier. 2012. “Security, Surveillance and Democracy.” In Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies, edited by Kirstie Ball, Kevin D. Haggerty and David Lyon, 277-284. New York: Routledge.

Bigo, Didier. (2015). “Death in the Mediterranean Sea: The results of the three fields of action of European Union border controls.” In The Irregularization of Migration in Contemporary Europe, edited by Yolande Jansen, Robin Celikates and Joost de Bloois, 55-70. London and New York: Rowman and Littlefield.

Boehme-Neßler, Volker. 2016. “Privacy: a matter of democracy. Why democracy needs privacy and data protection.” International Data Privacy Law 6(3): 222-229.

Bracken-Roche, Ciara. 2016. “Domestic drones: the politics of verticality and the surveillance industrial complex.” Geographica Helvetica 71: 167-172.

British Broadcasting Corporation. (BBC) 2017. “Migrant boat sinks off Turkish coast drowning 11.” BBC News, 24 March 2017. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-39380048

Council of the European Union (EU Council). 2017. Interinstitutional File: 2016/0035 (NLE) No. 6311/17. Brussels: Council of the European Union. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2017/feb/eu-council-greece-schengen-6311-17.pdf

Costello, Cathryn. 2016. The Human Rights of Migrants and Refugees in European Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dijstelbloem, Huub and Albert Meijer. 2011. Migration and the New Technological Borders of Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dutch Council for Refugees. (DCR) 2016. “The implementation of the hotspots in Italy and Greece: A study.” Amsterdam: Dutch Council for Refugees. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: http://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/HOTSPOTS-Report-5.12.2016..pdf

European Maritime Safety Agency. (EMSA) 2017. Newsletter No. 144: Quality Shipping, Safer Seas, Cleaner Oceans. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: http://emsa.europa.eu/news-a-press-centre/external- news/item/2973-newsletter-march-2017.html

Finn, Rachel L. and David Wright. 2012. “Unmanned aircraft systems: Surveillance, ethics and privacy in civil applications.” Computer Law & Security Review 28: 184-194.

Finn, Rachel L., David Wright and Michael Friedewald. 2013. “Seven types of Privacy.” In European Data Protection: Coming of Age, edited by Serge Gutwirth, Ronald Leenes, Paul de Hert, Yves Poullet, 3-32. Dordrecht: Springer.

Finn, Rachel L., David Wright, Laura Jacques and Paul De Hert. 2014. “Study on Privacy, Data Protection and Ethical Risks in Civil RPAS Operations. Final Report.” Publications Office of the European Union. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/DocsRoom/documents/8550

FRONTEX. European Border and Coast Guard Agency. 2017. “Western Balkans Quarterly Quarter 3, July–September 2016.” Frontex, Risk Analysis Unit, March 2017. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: http://frontex.europa.eu/assets/Publications/Risk_Analysis/WB_Q3_2016.pdf

Global Migration Data Analysis Center. (GMDAC) 2017. “Migrant deaths and disappearances worldwide: 2016 analysis.” GMDAC International Organization for Migration (IOM), March 2017. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available: https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/gmdac_data_briefing_series_issue_8.pdf

Graham, Steve. 2010. Cities under Siege. The New Militarization of Urbanism. London: Verso.

Guild, Elspeth and Didier Bigo. 2010. “The Transformation of European Border Controls.” In Extraterritorial Immigration Control: Legal Challenges, edited by Bernard Ryan and Valsamis Mitsilegas, 257-278. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.

Haggerty, Kevin D., and Minas Samatas. 2010. Surveillance and Democracy. Abingdon, New York: Routledge.

Haggerty, Kevin D., and Richard V. Ericson. 2006. “The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility.” In The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility, edited by Kevin D. Haggerty and Richard V. Ericson, 3-25. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Hellenic Data Protection Authority. 2015. “Decision No. 104/2015” [In Greek]. Athens: Hellenic Data Protection Authority.

Hughes, Kirsty. 2015. “The social value of privacy, the value of privacy to society and human rights discourse.” In Social Dimensions of Privacy: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, edited by Beate Roessler and Dorota Mokrosinska, 225-243. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Human Rights Watch. (HRW) 2012. “Hate on the Streets: Xenophobic violence in Greece.” Human Rights Watch, July 2012. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/greece0712ForUpload_0.pdf

Jensen, Ole B. 2016. “New ‘Foucauldian Boomerangs’: Drones and Urban Surveillance.” Surveillance & Society 14(1): 20-33.

Kenk, Vildana S., Janez Križaj, Vitomir Štruc, and Simon Dobrišek. 2013. “Smart surveillance technologies in border control.” European Journal of Law and Technology 4(2): 1–12.

Klauser, Francisco. 2013. “Spatialities of Security and surveillance: Managing spaces, separations and circulation at sport mega events.” Geoforum (49): 289-298.

Klauser, Francisco and Silvana Pedrozo. 2015. “Power and space in the drone age: a literature review and politico-geographical research agenda.” Geographica Helvetica 70: 285–293.

Lyon, David. 2007. Surveillance Studies: An Overview. Cambridge: Polity.

Marin, Luisa. 2016. “The Humanitarian Drone and the Borders: Unveiling the Rationales Underlying the Deployment of Drones in Border Surveillance.” In The Future of Drone Use: Opportunities and Threats from Ethical and Legal Perspectives, edited by Bart Custers, 115-132. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.

Mitrou, Lilian, Drogkaris Prokopios, and Leventakis George. 2017. “Perceptions of videosurveillance in Greece: A ‘Greek paradox’ beyond the trade-off of security and privacy?” In Surveillance, Privacy and Security: Citizens' perspectives, edited by Michael Friedewald, J. Peter Burgess, Johann Cas, Rocco Bellanova and Walter Peissl, 123-138. Abingdon, New York: Routledge.

Murakami Wood, David(ed.), Kirstie Ball, David Lyon, Clive Norris, and Charles Raab. 2006. A Report on the Surveillance Society. Wilmslow: Office of the Information Commissioner UK.

Murakami-Wood, David. 2012. “Globalization and surveillance.” In Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies, edited by Kirstie Ball, Kevin D. Haggerty and David Lyon, 333-342. New York: Routledge.

Newell, Bryce C., Ricardo Gomez and Veronica E. Guajardo. 2017. “Sensors, Cameras, and the New ‘Normal’ in Clandestine Migration: How Undocumented Migrants Experience Surveillance at the U.S.-Mexico Border.” Surveillance & Society 15(1): 21-41.

Parker, Noel and Nick Vaughan-Williams. 2012. “Critical border studies: broadening and deepening the ‘lines in the sand’ agenda.” Geopolitics 17(4): 727–733.

Pedrozo, Silvana. 2017. “Swiss military drones and the border space: a critical study of the surveillance exercised by border guards.” Geographica Helvetica 72: 97-107.

Pottakis, Andreas. 2017. “Regression of rights in situations of emergency and migration crisis: Ombudsman monitoring tools. Ombudsman, Hellenic Republic.” Speech at the symposium “Human Rights Challenges in Europe II: Populism, Regression of Rights and the Rights of Ombudsman, Barcelona, April 2017, 3-4. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: https://www.synigoros.gr/resources/20170404-ombudsman-pottakis-barcelona-symposium.pdf

Racist Violent Reporting Network. (RVPN) 2017. “2016 Annual Report.” RVPN, NCHR, UNHCR, April 4. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: http://rvrn.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Report_2016eng.pdf

Ryan, Bernard and Valsamis Mitsilegas. 2010. Extraterritorial Immigration Control: Legal Challenges. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.

Samatas, Minas. 2014. “A Brief History of the Anticommunist Surveillance in Greece and Its Lasting Impact.” In Histories of Surveillance in Europe and Beyond, edited by Kees Boersma, Rosamunde Van Brakel, Chiara Fonio and Pieter Wagenaar, 49-63. Abingdon: Routledge.

Topak, Özgün E. 2014. “The biopolitical border in practice: Surveillance and death at the Greece–Turkey borderzones.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 32(5): 815–833.

TO BHMA. 2017. “Drones in the service of Hellenic Police and Fire service: For the prevention of fires and the surveillance of streets and borders.” TO BHMA. February 22. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: http://www.tovima.gr/society/article/?aid=863640

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (UNHCR) 2016. “Mediterranean death toll soars, 2016 is deadliest year yet.” UNHCR Staff, October 25. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at:
http://www.unhcr.org/afr/news/latest/2016/10/580f3e684/mediterranean-death-toll-soars-2016-deadliest-year.html

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (UNHCR) 2017a. “Several die as boat sinks off Greece’s Lesvos island, pregnant woman saved.” UNCHR Greece, April 24. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: http://www.unhcr.gr/nea/artikel/fd35a7d47d483900da5e67a48f24cf37/several-die-as-boat-sinks-off-greece.html

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (UNHCR) 2017b. “Desperate Journeys: Refugees and migrants entering and crossing Europe via the Mediterranean and Western Balkans routes.” UNHCR, Bureau for Europe, February 27. Accessed April 28, 2017. Available at: https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/53994

Vergouw, Bas, Huub Nagel, Geert Bondt and Bart Custers. 2016. “Drone Technology: Types, Payloads, Applications, Frequency Spectrum Issues and Future Developments.” In The Future of Drone Use: Opportunities and Threats from Ethical and Legal Perspectives, edited by Bart Custers, 21-46. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.

Wall, Tyler and Torin Monahan. 2011. “Surveillance and violence from afar: The politics of drones and liminal security-scapes.” Theoretical Criminology 15(2): 239-254.