Focus and Scope

While Refractions is primarily devoted to publishing the work of undergraduates, it is open to the work of graduate students as well as professional scholars. True to our belief in the virtue of multiple perspectives, we welcome articles from individuals from any discipline and at any stage in their career. If you approach historical analysis from a less traditional angle, gaining fresh, exciting insights, then your scholarship will be of interest to this publication.

Peer Review Process

Editorial Board reviewing

  • The Editorial Board follows a blind review process. At no point during the reviewing process will the Editors be aware of the identity of the author of any given piece. The Senior Editors will be responsible for collecting, making anonymous, and disseminating the submissions to the editorial teams.
  • The Editorial Board (excepting the Senior Editors) will be divided into Editorial Teams of between 5 and 7 members. The submissions will be divided evenly amongst these teams.
  • Each member of the team will be asked to rank the papers assigned to their team. The rankings will be submitted to the Senior Editors who will then indicate to that team the highest ranked papers. The team will then meet to discuss the papers they selected and to approve them as official recommendations to the Board of Editors.
  • The Senior Editors will collect, review, and distribute the papers selected by each of the teams to the entire Board of Editors which will vote to approve the papers at the next Board of Editors Meeting. The selected and approved papers will proceed to the faculty review stage.

Faculty reviewing

  • The selected papers will be matched with an appropriate faculty reviewer. The reviewer will comment on the suitability of the paper for publication and provide feedback.
  • Comments and suggested revisions will be passed on to the author via the Board of Editors.
  • The author will make the revisions and submit the paper back to the Board of Editors.

Publication Frequency


Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.


Department of History

  • Queen's University