Inquiry@Queen's Undergraduate Research Conference Proceedings https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens Inquiry@Queen's Undergraduate Research Conference-- I@Q -- helps Queen's undergraduates discover the satisfactions of well-conducted research. Queen's University en-US Inquiry@Queen's Undergraduate Research Conference Proceedings <p>Authors who publish with this journal retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication of the work.</p> BioBoxes: Think Inside the Box https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8838 <p>Opening Panel Presentation</p> Rebecca Kirby Jordan Rodrigues ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Precarious Labour, Occupied Lands: The Checkpoint Economy and the Proletarianization of Palestinian Women. https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8844 <p>The thesis explores the phenomena of the proletarianization of Palestinian women and their experiences as migrant workers in Israel. Proletarianization refers to the separation of producers from the land they utilize for household subsistence and transforming them into wage labourers, hence integrating them into the capitalist system of production. Within this political economy framework, it will become clear that we are not only exploring a capitalist context, but most distinctly the economics of occupation. The assignment of these women to a separate ethnic group within Israel, but also to a separate economic group of "guest" workers who went back to their homes in Palestine at the end of the day had deep implications on both the economies and the structures of Palestinian and Israeli societies. This mostly unprecedented separation of the Palestinian woman from her land and family disturbed the traditional structure of the Palestinian private household. I will also explore how this phenomenon transformed these women and to what extent it transformed their gender roles, "liberated" them from patriarchy, and where it situated them in the nationalistic struggle against occupation.</p> Mays Abdel Aziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Enemy at the Gates: the Prisoner of War Experience in the 20th Century https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8847 <p>Being a Prisoner of War (POW) is a mentally and physically trying event for any soldier who has to experience it. Many captured soldiers are forced to live in horrid conditions, where they may be required for intensive labour, suffer from malnutrition, are often tortured, and in some cases, unable to contact their family. For some, they returned home after surviving these trying conditions only to be accused of being weak or “brainwashed” by the enemy to sympathize with foreign agendas. In the 1950’s, after many World War II POWs were returning home, this was a very popular subject in media, which only exacerbated the public opinion of weakness among the soldiers. The fear of explicit indoctrination by captors can cause panic in the public sphere during times of war, leading to a misunderstanding of soldiers who have returned home from POW camps. However, this paper will prove there is a tendency among soldiers who returned to be more understanding and tolerant of other cultures, without being a threat to their own country. With a focus on soldiers who fought in the 20th century, this paper will explore the process of indoctrination or re-education, how media influences the public response to POWs, and case studies of soldiers who returned home without feelings of disdain for their captors. Beyond all the negativity, and despite the Prisoner of War survivors living through generally horrible conditions, because exposure to different cultures, few of them retained negative feelings towards their captors after they have been released.</p> Meaghan Dalby ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Civilization in 19th Century Latin America: The “Modernization” of Cities and the Use of Prisons as a Form of Racial Control https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8850 <p>In the mid to late 19th century, Latin American states adopted European ideals of “civilization.” These ideals were foundational for several state projects that looked to “improve” the aesthetics of Latin American major cities, which were modelled after Paris, the epitome and embodiment of modernization. This “civilizing” reform of the cities caused the ghettoization of non-white communities, given that modern cities were conceptualized as white cities. Thus, to “Europeanize” Latin American cities, Indigenous, Black and Asian peoples needed to be contained and displaced. This was achieved through the creation of the prison system, which came to represent a new form of slavery and a state mechanism for the continuous control of racialized communities. This presentation will examine how criminality was socially constructed to justify the imprisonment of a specific “type” (or race) of person, which is evident given the prison demographics of the time. It will also analyze the theories of eugenics which provided justification for the project of civilization, which only served to worsen the social ills</p> Daniella Dávila Dávila Aquije ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Omnipresence: Total Surveillance…a Result of the Changing Times and Ignorant Minds https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8853 <p>As a result of the changing times, the constant overuse of recently discovered information communication technologies (ICT’s) has become a detrimental trend in contemporary society. There are a number of issues that arise from the regular use of these technologies which ultimately lead to the misuse of certain capabilities of these technologies. Web 2.0 (DiNucci, 1999), became the subject of discussion in the early 2000s. Web 2.0 identifies the newly popularized social networking sites on the World Wide Web which allow an interaction between the host and the user where the user has the ability to respond, comment or offer feedback to the host. It has been used to describe the idea of information sharing, feedback and ultimately, ubiquitous connectivity. As a result of the current Web 2.0 we engage in, there is a trend toward the constant use of social networking sites ultimately leading to participatory surveillance (Albrechtslund, 2008). Furthermore, the constant posting and updating required to manage your profile on social networking sites leads to new surveillance (Marx 2002) and sequentially, what has been termed lateral surveillance (Andrejevic, 2005). In addition, the development of location based technologies, for purposes of monitoring, have been integrated into popular social networking websites. The term Web 2.0 is associated with web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design and collaboration on the World Wide Web. A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with one another in a social media dialogue as creators of user-generated content in a virtual community. This differs from the previous Web 1.0 websites where users (consumers) were limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them. In turn, these activities are extensively popular and through the network effects of that popularity, economically significant (O’Reilly, 2005; Tweney, 2007; Madden and Fox, 2006). Finally, in accordance with the prosumer society, monetary gains are the primary focus of companies and furthermore, there has been a trend toward selling private information by internet website hosts in order to profit. The harnessing of collective intelligence within Web 2.0 demands platforms where this intelligence can be expressed and collected.&nbsp; Furthermore, in an age of growing technology, new legislations must be created in conjunction with the growing use of personal information. In a time of extreme internet use, our privacy is limited. With a growing trend toward the integration of Web 2.0 in daily life, it is clear that the relationship between privacy and surveillance is dramatically changing. We, as users, are naive in understanding the concepts of privacy and surveillance in the Web 2.0 society. Social networking systems and information sharing has blurred our ideas of privacy and limited our understanding of the use of surveillance. In a growing age of a prosumer society and the culture of social networking, users are inadvertently exposed to living an entirely public life.</p> Danielle Fishman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Group Size, Habitat Use and Behavioral Ecology of Amazonian River Dolphins (Inia geoffrensis and Sotalia fluviatilis) in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, Peru https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8859 <p>Presentation Title: River dolphins globally represent a highly at risk group of mammals. Most river dolphin species inhabit the world’s large rivers, which are also highly populated and heavily utilized. The focus of my research was on the two species of freshwater dolphins that inhabit the Amazon River, the boto (Inia geoffrensis) and the tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis). Currently both species are listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as ‘Data Defficient’, which means there is currently not enough information known about them to accurately assess whether or not they are endangered. Major gaps in research of these two species currently exist in many basic biological and ecological parameters. The focus of this research was to compare existing data on group size and habitat preference as well as determine the behavioral ecology of the two species of river dolphins. The research was conducted in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, Peru, which has a relatively high density of river dolphins. The reserve consists of many small tributaries, which are relatively understudied and so the conclusions drawn from this research will help guide future research and management decisions in other regions of the Amazon.</p> Evan Hall ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Analysis of Tyrrell Sea Deposits from the Vicinity of the Victor Diamond Mine: Comparison of Three North American Clay Deposits https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8862 <p>he De Beers Victor Mine is an open pit diamond mine, and is located in the James Bay lowlands. The lowlands are characterized by extensive peatlands overlying Tyrell Sea sediments. One of the potential impacts of open pit mining, and the focus of the current work, is the potential for differential subsistence in the Tyrell Sea sediments owing to continuous groundwater withdrawal from the underlying limestone aquifers. To fully understand the potential effects of subsistence, a better understanding of the nature and properties of the Tyrell Sea sediments is needed. This will be achieved by analyzing various properties of samples collected from the Victor Diamond Mine, and comparing those properties with values from Lake Agassiz sediments and Bearpaw Shale. Properties such as hydraulic conductivity, grain size, plastic and liquid limit, and mineralogy will be compared. It is expected that the samples from the Victor Mine are a rock flour dominated by clay fraction, composed mostly of finely ground carbonates. The sediments are expected to have high plasticity, low hydraulic conductivity, and moisture content too low for that of true clay.</p> Jean Holloway ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Post-Pollution: Characterizing Ecological Recovery in a Historically Nutrient Enriched Lake. https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8874 <p>An iconic story of recovery from nutrient pollution is the restoration of the heavily enriched Lake Washington in Seattle, Washington State. Originally an integral part of the municipal septic system, a diversion of wastewater in 1968 has allowed Lake Washington to return to what has been recently described as a natural and healthy state. Yet is it accurate to characterize a lake as “recovered” based purely on chemical measurements? Does a legacy of pollution linger on in the ecology of a lake system long after the lake has been given a clean bill of health?<br>Using paleolimological reconstructive techniques it is possible to compare pre-pollution and post-pollution communities of algae by looking at microfossils stored chronologically in the lake-bottom sediment. Use of this technique has afforded a test of the assumption that once pollution stress in a lake is alleviated, the algal communities quickly return to the pre-pollution state. Work on Lake Washington indicates that this does not always hold true. Instead, it suggests that a legacy of pollution persists in the algae and ecological community of the lake long after the nutrient levels have returned to normal.</p> Iain MacKenzie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Sea Dyke Rehabilitation and Climate Change in Dutch and Japanese Contexts https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8877 <p>The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between climate change and the need to rehabilitate sea dykes. Sea dykes are a critical component of coastal infrastructure and national flood prevention systems and are increasingly susceptible to a number of failure mechanisms under climate change conditions. This paper will explore case studies of sea dyke rehabilitation and climate change in both the Netherlands and Japan. Both countries have urban areas within close proximity to coastal areas and have constructed sea and river dykes as part of their national flood prevention plans. The International Panel on Climate Change published a report in February 2012 stating that mean global temperatures are going to increase by 1 to 3 degrees Celcius by 2050, which will affect global weather conditions. The characteristics of climate change which most affect sea dykes include the frequency and severity of storms as well as global sea level rise. These trends increase the risk of dyke failure modes such as overtopping, micro instability, and erosion of non-reinforced inner slopes. Techniques for rehabilitation both proven and proposed will be discussed with a particular focus on methods for implementation as well as the policy framework of these projects.</p> Heather Murdock ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 From Fresh and Filling to Fatty and Fake: Exploring the Environmental Causes of Contemporary Obesity. https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8883 <p>The World Health Organization states that more than 1.5 billion adults, aged 20 and older are overweight, of which at least 500 million are obese (WHO, 2011). In addition, over 45 million children, under the age of five, are obese (ibid). Worldwide the obesity rate has more than doubled since 1980 (ibid). These statistics are particularly alarming because obesity is a preventable illness. This drastic increase in more recent years demonstrates the need for intervention. Environmental aspects which have caused the current obesity epidemic can be described by four important changes in our society. Primarily the epidemic largely stems from increased food availability resulting from augmented international trade. In addition, the current epidemic largely results from the shift of food ingredients from primarily plant-based products to animal-based. Furthermore, current ingredients have led to adaptations in the human brain size essential for intellectual growth. Finally, our environment has led to substantial alterations in activity patterns and has ultimately caused a sedentary lifestyle in both children and adults. The current rise in obesity can be attributed to the changing environment and our acquired habits resulting from these changes. Although humans have created excellent physiological mechanisms to defend against weight gain, these mechanisms are unable to sustain a normal weight if consumption of food is constant. The current epidemic can be attributed to shifts in the global environment resulting in changed eating patterns and decreased activity levels.</p> Danielle Fishman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Predictors of Relationship Outcome between Disabled and Non-Disabled Siblings https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8886 <p>In recent years, there has been increasing research on individuals with a disabled sibling looking at the impact of the relationship on the adjustment and behaviour of the non-disabled sibling and predictors of sibling relationships such as behaviour disabled sibling. Although research to date has focused on individual factors, there is a need for research on the relative contributions of multiple factors. The purpose of this study is to understand the sibling relationship outcome between a disabled and non-disabled sibling as predicted by the stressors caused by the disabled sibling, the non-disabled sibling’s relationship perception and available coping and resources. This study will use the ABCX model (McCubbin &amp; Patterson, 1983) as a framework to study predictors of relationship outcome between disabled and non-disabled siblings. Predictor variables will include: stress, aA factor, (demographic information and behaviour of sibling with a disability), resources, bB factor (knowledge about disability and resource use), perceptions, cC factor (self-efficacy and comfort with disabled sibling) and outcome, xX factor (relationship quality). I hypothesize that when the non-disabled sibling is more comfortable and knowledgeable about the disability and has a higher level of self-efficacy and available resources, the relationship will be perceived more positively, improving relationship quality and leading to a positive relationship outcome. Participants will consist of approximately 100 individuals aged 16 – 26 who have a sibling with a developmental disability. Data will be collected through an online survey. The results of this study are valuable, as understanding what the predictors are that lead to a positive versus negative relationship outcome is the first step in helping to intervene in the relationship and input the right implementations to ensure a positive outcome</p> Laura Peill ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Mental Health Stigma in Medical Educators: The Images Study https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8889 <p>Neuropsychiatric disorders are among the leading cause of disability worldwide, accounting for 13% of the global burden of disease, and one-third of all years lost due to disability. In Canada 15% of the population report that they have been diagnosed as being clinically depressed, with at least one in five Canadians experiencing a mental illness in their lifetime. Recruitment to psychiatry within medical schools worldwide ranges from approximately 2-7%, resulting in unfilled psychiatric residencies and an inadequate number of practicing professionals to address demand for mental health services within populations. The negative socialization hypothesis attempts to explain the lack of interest as the result of anti-psychiatry statements by peers and non-psychiatric faculty members. An international questionnaire measuring the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes towards non-psychiatric physician educators at medical centres was conducted under the auspices of the Association for the Improvement of Mental Health Programmes. Results will be discussed within the context of current theories about stigmatizing attitudes towards psychiatric patients and the field of psychiatry. Current anti-stigma programmes and the impact of culture on mental illness and stigma will also be discussed.</p> Jenna Thygesen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Arviq! The Northern Hunter’s Spiritual Connection to Animals and Community Presenter: https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8895 <p>In Inuktituk, nuna means the land. It means the rocks, rivers, mountains and the forests. Nuna is everything, and all parts of the nuna have an inua, which means a living soul. There is a special, if not sacred relationship between members of northern communities and the nuna. However, these sacred relationships are all too often glossed over, if not forgotten. In the social sciences, author John Sorenson articulates a critical argument and evocative opinions about hunting in his article; Hunting is a Part of Human Nature (John Sorenson, “Hunting is a Part of Human Nature,” Culture of Prejudice, Arguments in Critical Social Science. Eds. Judith Blackwell, Murray Smith, John Sorenson, (Canada: Broadview Press, 2003).Sorenson demonstrates that hunting is an unnatural human activity which is linked to a cultural domination over animals. However, in these statements Sorenson neglects to consider the northern hunter in Inuit communities around the world. Cultural myths, social constructions and daily activities prove that hunting animals is a core value to how many Inuit peoples relate to each other and perceive themselves in the cosmos. This is a study that examines the relationship of people, land, animals and faith in order to understand the significance of hunting within Inuit cultures.</p> Chelsea Drent ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Accent Identification in RP, CE, and GA By Native and Non-Native English Speakers https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8898 <p>This study was conducted in order to determine various groups’ accuracy in identifying three major standard English accents. The main purpose of the experiment that was performed was to determine how well speakers familiar with these accents could tell them apart from other accents. It focused on comparing the test subjects’ recognition of Canadian English pronunciation with General American pronunciations. Received Pronunciation was used as a control as it is generally considered to differ much more from the standard North American varieties than they differ from one another.<br>Within North America, the 'standard' accents of Canada and the US are quite similar. So similar, that one of the experiment’s hypotheses is that that despite being identified by linguists as different, many native speakers of the two dialects would have difficulty telling the difference themselves. The differences in the features of Canadian English (CE) and General American (GA) have been identified and studied by linguists before, but what this experiment sought to determine was the degree to which speakers of these dialects could tell them apart purely through listening.<br>Canada is given some degree of stigma from the United States for its dialect, and has had fun poked at it for such Canadianisms as the use of 'eh?' and Canadian Raising- Americans will exaggerate the difference when illustrating it, saying “aboot” [ə'but] for about [əˈbʌʊt]. But how well can they perceive the difference when not already informed about the speaker's origins?<br>An online survey was prepared, with audio clips or words in isolation and sentences, spoken by speakers of GA, CE, and RP, specifically using words that exhibited features that vary between the accents. This allowed us to examine subjects’ degree of recognition with, and without prosody, and to analyze the degree to which prosody affects accent recognition. In order to better determine how prior exposure influences accent recognition, the subjects were broken down into three groups: Native speakers of Canadian English, native speakers of American English and ESL speakers who had had prior exposure to Canadian English.<br>One of the main findings of this experiment is that more than 80% of American respondents recognized their own national standard accent, and around 67% recognized the Canadian accent; while only 62% of the Canadian respondents recognized the Canadian accent accurately. Compared to Canadians, Americans were better at telling the North American varieties of spoken English apart.</p> Jonathan Reid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Queen's Genetically Engineered Machine Team (QGEM): Nemoremediation https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8904 <p>Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing field that tries to simplify genes into “biobricks” and use these to push the limits of what is possible in genetic engineering. The Queen's Genetically Engineered Machine Team competes annually at the International Genetically Engineered Machine Competition, one of the largest undergraduate research conferences on the planet. Last year’s project focused on modifying the nematode worm, C. Elegans to chemotax, or seek out and degrade pollutants, such as naphtalene. We have produced genetic constructs with protein receptors from M. musculus, R. norvegicus, and H. sapiens intended to enhance the worm's ability to chemotax towards naphthalene and other pollutants. We also worked on a field bioassay based on fluorescent proteins that will indicate the presence of naphthalene in a soil sample. The goal is to have a population of green fluorescent worms chemotaxing toward and a population of red fluorescent worms chemotaxing away from the napthalene in the soil sample. Finally, we have added the P. putida gene, nahD, to the biobrick registry, which encodes a degradative enzyme as part of a naphthalene catabolic pathway.</p> Kevin Chen Tony He Anujan Poologaindran; Eni Rukaj Stephanie Zhou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Relationship between Gender Stereotypes and Anxiety and the Effects on Negotiation Performance https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8907 <p>Women with comparable education and experience typically negotiate significantly lower starting salaries and subsequent raises than their male counterparts. The purpose of this study is to further investigate gender differences in negotiation performance by examining the link between stereotype threat and anxiety. Stereotype threat occurs in situations that invoke stereotype-based expectations for poor performance; because men typically enjoy a positive stereotype advantage in negotiation settings (where effective negotiators are believed to be assertive, rational, constructive, effective and decisive), they typically outperform women. Recent work by Kray, Galinsky &amp; Thomas (2001) observed in mix-gender dyads that redefining female stereotypes as positive or enhancing to negotiating, women actually outperformed their male counterparts. To further understand the underlying mechanisms behind these findings, the current ongoing study compares levels of anxiety and negotiation performance under three experimental conditions that differ in terms of engendering stereotype threat.</p> Catherine Oppedisano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Medieval Romance, Antique Primitive: B.W. Mountfort’s Hemingford Church https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8910 <p>The Gothic Revival is arguably one of the most important and influential architectural movements before the advent of global culture in the twentieth century. Spreading throughout the British Empire in the nineteenth century, Gothic Revival architecture had the power to influence the culture of Britain’s newest and farthest colonies, particularly New Zealand, a colony that was viewed as a blank slate free for development. It is without surprise that Gothic Revival architecture became a prominent part of the young colony’s landscape in the opening decades of its development. One of the architects primarily responsible for the introduction of the Gothic style to the colony was Benjamin Woolfield Mountfort. His first design for the colony was a small church at the settlement of Hemingford in Canterbury. This modest design not only demonstrates Mountfort’s skill as an architect in his ability to adapt the complex and demanding Gothic style to a wooden church constructed with limited financial and material resources but also his ability to create a church that reflected the emerging cultural identity of the young colony. This paper will argue that, for New Zealand, the Gothic Revival and its adaptation on the islands became a symbolic style that represented the country New Zealand was to become: a younger, better England. It will also argue that Mountfort’s Hemingford Church was the ideal representation of everything the colony wished to achieved, neatly packaged in a humble architectural design.</p> Emily Turner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Treatment of Silicon Dioxide Films Resulting in Luminescence from Silicon Nanoclusters https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8919 <p>A large conglomerate of silicon atoms is known to group together forming a silicon nanocluster. Through quantum confinement effects, these silicon nanoclusters are known to luminesce when they are grown to a critical radius. Luminescence may have applications ranging from data transmission over wireless networks, to building low cost biomedical lasers, and to effectively eliminating the bandwidth of a signal inside of a silicon chip, hence it is a worthwhile research interest. This critical radius was modeled as a function of the concentration of excess silicon originally embedded in a silicon dioxide film. Using a simplified diffusional approach, the theoretical size, growth and pacification of nanoclusters were compared to experimentally confirmed results. Processing techniques that may allow for the growth of such a film were examined, and an American company called Veeco was found that could accommodate such a process.</p> David Wisniewski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Changing Strings: How the Influence of the 19th Century Middle Class Changed the Guitar and Lute. https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8922 <p>From the 16th to the 18th century the lute dominated the attention of European musicians, who cared little for the early guitar. Composers and musicians of the time held the tone and versatility of the lute in the highest esteem, while largely ignoring the guitar due to the relative simplicity of the existing repertoire. By the 19th century, however, the guitar had become extremely popular while the lute had disappeared almost entirely. The socioeconomic background of Europe played a key role in the fate of these two instruments; in particular, the growing economic power of the newly emergent middle class was decisive in determining the rise and fall of the guitar and lute, respectively. This presentation will compare and analyze the cultural and aesthetic antecedents that led to the acceptance of the guitar and the retrospective difficulties the European middle class had with the lute. Drawing connections between the evolving musical aesthetic and the social and economic climate of a particular period is an important undertaking as it serves to not only broaden the understanding of music and its’ history, but also to provide a unique insight into society at that time.</p> Chad Yacobucci ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 “To the soul made of fire ... I am ever tender and true”: The Foreshadowing Role of the Fire Motif in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8934 <div style="left: 140px; top: 342.261px; font-size: 18.4px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.948113);">The literature concerned with the interpretation of the fire motif in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre is largely unsatisfactory, since most critics fail to address its function as a foreshadowing device. This study provides an original interpretation that concerns itself with highlighting the key role of fire in the signalling of Jane and Mr. Rochester’s union, and celebrating Brontë’s scrupulous writing style that greatly influenced the tradition of the romance novel. By collecting and analysing more than a hundred fire -related passages within Jane Eyre, this study reveals how they take on significant patterns throughout the novel. By exploring these patterns, this study traces the correlation between the novel’s fire-related passages and the development of Jane and Rochester’s budding romance, thus revealing how the fire motif sustains the notion that these lovers are destined for each other. Such patterns include the physical mirroring of fire, the portrayals of Jane’s inflammable personality, the descriptions of Rochester’s “fiery” gaze, and the significant recurrence of fire in the novel’s key events. Since the notion of destiny is a crucial convention of the romance genre, Brontë’s manipulation of the fire motif as a foreshadowing device is not only remarkable but significant in the understanding of how successful romance novels operate. Thus, this research demon strates Brontë’s innovative use of figurative writing in Jane Eyre, which not only presages the novel’s romantic conclusion, but heavily influences the works of such authors as Jean Rhys and Tessa McWatt.</div> Felicia Latour ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Constantine’s Introduction of the Gold Solidus https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8937 <div style="left: 140.018px; top: 953.49px; font-size: 18.4px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.910331);">In the Roman Empire of 3rd century AD was subject to serious hyperinflation, which was caused by the overproduction of the denarius, which by this point contained minimal amounts of silver. At the end of the century Diocletian attempted to solve this problem by fixing the prices of goods but was unsuccessful. Constantine I during his reign in the early 4 th&nbsp;century AD introduced a new gold currency, the solidus, which successfully brought down inflation. The solidus had a consistent weight and a floating exchange rate with the base-metal&nbsp; currency. The result of this was a stable denomination that acted in some respects as a gold standard. Constantine was able to accomplish what previous emperors could not because of two extraordinary events: his conversion to Christianity and the discovery of a new source of gold in the reign of his son Constantius II. His conversion to Christianity allowed him to confiscate the wealth from pagan temples. The accounts of these confiscations by Eusebius were previously thought to have been primarily laudative. Recent work done by Kevin Wilkinson on the dating of Palladas, another contemporary writer, has shown that these confiscations were a reality. These two events supplied the empire with enough gold to effectively jump-start his economic strategy. A better understanding of these events is achieved by examining modern historical parallels. These are the confiscations of Jewish property in Germany during the 1930s, Spain’s economy after discovering New World gold and Brazil’s use of a floating exchange-rate to stop hyperinflation.</div> Jessica Harden ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Functional investigation of a highly conserved aspartate residue in the anti -cancer drug efflux transport protein MRP1 https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8940 <div style="left: 140px; top: 364.654px; font-size: 18.4px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.902605);">Multidrug Resistant Protein 1 (MRP1 or ABCC1) belongs to a subclass of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that export a wide range of metabolites and xenobiotics across the plasma membrane. Increased expression of MRP1 in cancer cells enhances efflux of many anti-cancer agents, giving rise to multidrug resistant tumours. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of an aspartate (Asp) amino acid that is highly conserved in all MRP-related proteins by mutating it and determining the consequences of doing so. Asp430 lies at the interface of the cytoplasm and a transmembrane helix in the first membrane-spanning domain of MRP1. Previous studies have shown that when Asp430 is mutated, the protein becomes unstable and is degraded.Because this Asp430 is highly conserved in many MRP-related ABC transporters and because structural homology models of human MRP1 predict that Asp430 is in close proximity to Arg433, we hypothesized that a salt bridge between these two a mino acids could be essential for proper folding and stability of the protein during its biosynthesis. Using site -directed mutagenesis, these two amino acids were interchanged to probe the existence of such an interaction. Thus a double mutant where Asp430 was mutated to Arg, and Arg433 was mutated to Asp was created, and the resultant mutant protein (D430R/R433D) was tested for its ability to be detected in mammalian</div> <div style="left: 140.012px; top: 700.261px; font-size: 18.4px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.929819);">cells by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Our results show differences between the migration patterns of double and single mutants that are compatible with differences in the</div> <div style="left: 140.012px; top: 745.046px; font-size: 18.4px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.915269);">glycosylation levels of MRP1. However the fact that D430R and the R433D mutants don’t share the same migration pattern, together with the variation in migration bet</div> <div style="left: 140.012px; top: 789.832px; font-size: 18.4px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.920369);">ween D430 wild type and Supported by CIHR MOP-10519the double mutant D430R/R433D indicate that the possibility of a salt bridge can be discarded.Supported by CIHR MOP-10519</div> Graeme Mullins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products and their effects on humans https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8943 <div style="left: 140.049px; top: 946.398px; font-size: 18.4px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.899406);">The increased use of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCP’s) has led to an increase in many population health problems. In 1997, 15–50 % of women had developed breasts by the age of 8. Ten years prior to this, breast development by the age of 8 was uncommon. There are certain researchers who believe that this may be linked to the pharmaceuticals humans are consuming.Wastewater treatment plants are a significant gateway by which pharmaceuticals enter the water supply. Many pharmaceuticals find themselves in wastewater treatment plants, however the plants do not target these specific chemicals for treatment. As a result, they are released into the surrounding bodies of water, and accumulate in aquatic animals. When water treatment plants take water from the bodies of water and distribute it for human consumption, humans consume these chemicals.Many techniques for removing the pharmaceuticals have been tested, but there is still much uncertainty as to which are effective methods. The potential hazards associated with these chemicals are still uncertain, but the current evidence is indicating that it is very likely that these chemicals can be very hazardous.</div> Alex Neumann ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-09 2018-02-09 The Social Construction of Dysfunction and Disorders: What Role Does the Pharmaceutical Industry Play? https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8952 <p>There has been widespread controversy regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s motive to promote and sell new drugs pertaining to sexual health. In this paper I will bring up a number of different authors who feel that the definition of ‘sexual health’ has been purposely redefined in order to create a market for a drug whose need is questionable. This paper investigates and raises questions about the veracity of diseases heavily promoted and marketed by the pharmaceutical industry, such as female sexual dysfunction disorder. Is it truly the female equivalent to male erectile dysfunction? Or is it the avaricious creation of pharmaceutical companies in a sly endeavor to increase sales of products like Viagra? Next, I look at the enormous impact pharmaceutical companies have had on shaping our everyday definitions of what is ‘normal’ in terms of sexual functioning. Also, the effects of standardizing diagnosis are considered, and finally, I investigate the costs of reducing sexual dysfunction to a physiological cause and how pharmaceutical industries strive to create a universalized, function-focused sexuality in which physiology dictates sexual conduct.</p> Nicole Persall ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Demographic Changes Affecting Our Pensions https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8958 <p>Our Canadian retirement system contains three pillars, focusing on providing all members of&nbsp;Canadian society with a minimum and guaranteed standard of living for retirement, through<br>direct transfers to help the working poor (first pillar) to Canada Pension Plan payments through&nbsp;mandatory monthly deductions (second pillar) funding current retirees and through tax<br>deductions offered via Canadians’ private savings (third pillar).&nbsp;Yet, with the baby boom generation presently retiring, and the current workforce positively&nbsp;shrinking, how will our monthly paycheck deductions towards Canada Public Pension payments&nbsp;be affected? Did you know that when you are born in 1985, you receive approximately $0.70 in&nbsp;retirement back from the government for every $1 contribution made from your current&nbsp;paycheck, and $0.60 back for every $1 contribution if born in 1995? These demographic changes&nbsp;are negatively affecting the future returns of our Canada Public Pension payments, despite a&nbsp;+$150 billion Canada Pension Plan Investment fund and the other two pillars of the Canadian<br>retirement system. Either one improves the second pillar as it is, affecting the other two pillars, or&nbsp;one completely replaces that system with alternative options. This presentation will focus on the alternative options available and what can be done to mitigate&nbsp;the negative effects of the present demographic changes affecting the status of our Canada&nbsp;Public Pensions.</p> Karicia Quiroz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 If You Cannot Beat Them, Why Not Have Them Join Up? https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8964 <p>This paper explores the plausibility of a rather novel solution to the problem of domestic terrorist&nbsp;threats: might the risk posed by individuals from communities that are thought to be prone to&nbsp;acts of political violence and terrorism be mitigated by recruiting to the military members of&nbsp;communities that public and political discourse has deemed a fifth pillar? The military presents a&nbsp;stable, well-paying career to individuals marginalized by their ethno-religious identity that have to&nbsp;this point been grossly under-represented in the Canadian Armed Forces. It can also bring&nbsp;members of these communities into a closer relationship with the state and mainstream society&nbsp;that will foster allegiance, combat alienation, and stifle the desire to commit violence against&nbsp;Canada and its citizens.&nbsp;Two implications follow for the Canadian Armed Forces from the explanation of the Toronto 18 as&nbsp;a non-peaceful node of an identity-based network. One is that the institution should be cautious&nbsp;not to fall into the trap of a populist vernacular reification of identity that might inadvertently&nbsp;further the community’s collective alienation by overtly appealing to “Arabs” or “Muslims”. The&nbsp;other is that the military may do well to focus on the equality of treatment within their institution&nbsp;rather than material benefits when attempting to extend an olive branch to Canada’s&nbsp;marginalized communities, instead making an emotional appeal based on the common good.</p> Kenneth Hall ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Chinese Canadians: Exercising Social Power through Affiliations https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8967 <p>The Chinese presence within the dominant Canadian host society has been one of struggle and&nbsp;triumph. Racial attitudes caused extreme forms of stereotyping and prejudice against the Chinese&nbsp;residing in Canada. Although many scholars discuss the history of racism against the Chinese in&nbsp;Canada, most leave the Chinese voiceless and do not consider the internal and external powers&nbsp;within the Chinese communities. The Chinese were not defenceless and by creating associations&nbsp;they were able to voice their opinions. Also, by aligning themselves to religious organizations and&nbsp;joining in the military effort, they were able to create their own identity and gain an even footing&nbsp;in the social hierarchy within Canada. Thus, Chinese Canadians have been in full control of&nbsp;creating their own cultural identity within diverse Chinese communities. Chinese associations&nbsp;were established soon after the arrival of the first Chinese settlers in Canada, notably the Chinese&nbsp;Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) which dealt with numerous issues, charities, some&nbsp;of which provided housing, cultural celebration, and much more. The Chinese created a distinct&nbsp;culture, while at the same time becoming a part of Canada’s cultural mosaic. Despite deep-seated&nbsp;racial oppression, the Chinese Canadians were able to exercise social power by establishing the&nbsp;CCBA, creating associations and assimilating through religious and military affiliations.</p> Corin De Sousa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 The Complexities of the Internet as a Tool for Development: The Case of Pornography in South Africa. https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8970 <p>My thesis (DEVS 502) critiques ``practitioners of development'' for promoting the Internet as a&nbsp;development tool in Africa while ignoring the issue of pornography. It demonstrates that the<br>increased availability and exposure to pornography in Africa is likely to adversely affect the lives of&nbsp;both men and women. Pornography fails to promote safer sex to a population at significant risk of&nbsp;HIV/AIDS. It perpetuates constrictive notions of femininity and masculinity, portraying men as&nbsp;conquering the submissive women, while making male satisfaction the only important outcome&nbsp;of sexual acts. Pornography is not only a gender issue, but also a racial issue: it promotes&nbsp;“whiteness” by idealizing the white female body and portraying the limited number of black&nbsp;actors in a brutal, animal-like way. Pornography, thus, is a powerful medium that may prevent a&nbsp;necessary re-socialization among youth in South Africa to combat the ills of racism and gender&nbsp;inequality. Finally, pornography reflects the ways in which the West has historically held the&nbsp;power to influence gender, racial and sexual norms and values. In this sense, pornography can be&nbsp;viewed as another instance of Western colonialism. Through the lens of South Africa I show that&nbsp;the Internet will have negative consequences that need to be taken into account if it is applied as a&nbsp;development tool.</p> Meghan Donevan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Gender and the surrogacy industry in India: An analysis of exploitation in the production of a child. https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8973 <p>The aim of this paper is to discuss what moral and philosophical values determine the debate on&nbsp;surrogacy as well as to detect the racist, gender and class oppressive discourses that prevail the&nbsp;surrogacy industry and exploits the surrogates labour. The study examines gestational surrogacy,&nbsp;which is where a couple “rent” the womb of another woman to carry their child. This is a fast&nbsp;growing industry, especially in India, where surrogacy, according to a report from the&nbsp;Confederation of Indian Industry, is estimated to generate $2.3 billion this year.<br>The study is divided into two parts. First, it looks at reproduction issues in Western society, where&nbsp;most clients in the surrogacy industry come from. Second, it focuses on the surrogate and the&nbsp;industry in India. The first part problematizes the way our society views reproduction and what&nbsp;stigmas surround the notion of the nuclear family and the “need” for a biological child. The study&nbsp;then examines why so many childless adults now choose to proceed with surrogacy, and why they&nbsp;do this in India, articulating practical issues as well as the discourses of race, colonialism, gender&nbsp;and class that become visible. The focus in India then lies on the surrogate as well as the role of&nbsp;the maternity clinic. The thesis explores the dichotomy that is articulated in the surrogacy&nbsp;industry where the surrogate is simultaneously viewed as an object, a womb with no feelings, and&nbsp;as a subject, a compassionate Madonna that is impossible to objectify.</p> Karin Forss ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 The Relationship between Self-Verification and Cultural Mosaic Beliefs in Multicultural Groups https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8976 <p>In previous research, the cultural mosaic model was found to describe multicultural group&nbsp;processes using three factors—cultural diversity, cultural expression and acceptance, and cultural&nbsp;utilization. The current study will test the role of cultural self-verification within multicultural work&nbsp;groups to demonstrate the cultural mosaic model. Given the observed relationship between the&nbsp;cultural mosaic model and team productivity, the study will prime cultural self-verification (or not)&nbsp;through discussion of group members’ cultural backgrounds to establish norms of openness of&nbsp;identity and acceptance of diversity within the group. I predict groups who are encouraged to&nbsp;openly discuss their cultural backgrounds will feel more comfortable utilizing their unique cultural&nbsp;knowledge and expressing innovative ideas which otherwise might not be shared. This will result&nbsp;in greater success during the problem-solving task and cause individuals to work more cohesively&nbsp;and be more inclined to present feasible and innovative solutions to the problem, and to be&nbsp;accepting of such solutions from other group members. It is also expected that participants in the&nbsp;self-verified condition will rate the experience of working in this multicultural group more&nbsp;positively than participants in the control condition who do not discuss their cultural backgrounds&nbsp;prior to the task. Should this pattern of findings occur, a research application is better&nbsp;understanding of the cultural mosaic construct, and a practical application would be for ways to&nbsp;engender cultural mosaic groups in organizations by encouraging discussion about team&nbsp;members’ ethnic and cultural backgrounds in order to achieve greater workplace productivity and&nbsp;a higher degree of job satisfaction.</p> Allyson Haarstad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Switchgrass Productivity and Soil Trace Gas Production https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8979 <p>Atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations continue to increase and one of the major&nbsp;culprits is the continued elevation and use of fossil fuels for energy. Using bioenergy, a renewable&nbsp;and sustainable source of natural energy, could help to reduce the effect that fossil fuels are&nbsp;having on the planet by slowing the rate of input of atmospheric GHG’s. Perennial crops such as&nbsp;switch grass can be grown and used as a bioenergy crop. In some cases, nitrogen fertilizers are&nbsp;used to increase the growth of bioenergy crops with potential negative environmental&nbsp;consequences. For example, nitrogen fertilizer can impact soil chemical processes and lead to an&nbsp;increase in the production of greenhouse gases, mainly N2O and CH4. Production of these gases&nbsp;would negate some of the benefits achieved by substituting bioenergy crops for fossil fuels. When&nbsp;I examined the amount of gas flux being produced by switchgrass fields, with 0 lbs/acre, 50&nbsp;lbs/acre and 150lbs/acre fertilizer treatments we observed, as predicted, an increase in N2O&nbsp;production with more fertilization. In some cases the increase in N2O production in the&nbsp;150lbs/acre treatment was as extreme as being over 200% larger compared with no fertilization. I&nbsp;also observed some very interesting results with methane production, which has been showing&nbsp;production of methane, along with after around 30 minutes of gas collection in a chamber. Based&nbsp;on the results of my research, I have created a cost benefit analysis of using nitrogen fertilizer on&nbsp;switchgrass crops.</p> Serra Buchanan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 A Waste of Space -Solutions to Ontario's Landfill Problems https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8982 <p>Canada is one of the countries that produce hundreds of kilograms of waste per captia, a number&nbsp;that continues to increase steadily each year. In 2007, our country generated twice as much waste&nbsp;as Japan. Major cities in Ontario, such as Toronto and Ottawa, are facing issues of their landfills&nbsp;reaching its capacity within the next decade. I will research the waste management practices of&nbsp;countries that have a high waste diversion rate and analyze how these practices can be&nbsp;incorporated into Ontario’s regulations. The countries I will discuss the background of the&nbsp;practices are Sweden and Finland because of the similarities to Ontario. Each technology and&nbsp;method used will be analyzed, and a discussion will follow on the applicability of use in Ontario.</p> Tiffany Chai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Informal Recycling In Developing Nations https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8985 <p>The topic of my research is informal recycling with a focus on developing nations. Scavengers are&nbsp;considered people who sort through garbage but not through an organization. There is a negative&nbsp;stigma that is associated with this type of lifestyle. The discussion will explore the benefits of&nbsp;organized informal recycling programs in countries such as Brazil and Nigeria. When informal&nbsp;recycling becomes organized jobs are created allowing for more residents to become employed.&nbsp;Some of the benefits of informal recycling include reducing the volume of waste, the life span of&nbsp;disposal sites is increased as well it helps reduce the amount of methane produced. These&nbsp;programs also allow for certain materials to be discovered which can easily be reused. For&nbsp;example, there are metals that can be sorted through and ultimately sold to companies. Another&nbsp;example would be the organics from the garbage are used in order to support pig farms. This&nbsp;decreases the cost of production for the pig farmers, which allows them a larger profit margin.&nbsp;Also, social, economic, environmental and health issues will be discussed in further detail. Finally,&nbsp;terms will be defined to allow a better understanding of the informal recycling world and how it&nbsp;operates.</p> Amanda Hart ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Opening the vault: The truth behind genetically modified foods https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8988 <p>When it comes to experimentation, informed consent must be given. How will North Americans&nbsp;feel when they find out they have been unknowingly participating in the consumption of<br>genetically modified (GM) foods? GM foods develop global controversies, and have since their&nbsp;introduction into the international food market. Top stories in the news today cover the concerns&nbsp;of GM products facing the environment and its biodiversity; however, they seem to neglect the&nbsp;health risks for humans. This is because most GM food providers do not want possible health risks&nbsp;to get in the way of profit. Therefore, the vault must be opened: Genetically modified foods need&nbsp;to be avoided because of the detrimental health risks associated with their consumption.&nbsp;The health risks regarding genetically modified foods are extremely important because they can&nbsp;be easily prevented if the globe comes together to promote a natural world. It will undoubtedly&nbsp;be difficult because of the invasion of GMOs that has already taken place, but refusing to&nbsp;purchase GM products, at least until they are proven to be safe, is an ideal place to start.</p> Sean Elizabeth Jackson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Comparative Efficiency of Municipal Recycling Systems Based on Source Separated or Commingled Collection; with a Case Study of the City Gatineau. https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8991 <p>One of the essential steps in an efficient municipal waste management system is organizing the&nbsp;collection and sorting of recyclable materials. Having businesses and residential homes sort their&nbsp;recyclables before collection or collecting all recyclables together and then sorting them at a&nbsp;central plant as well as some other pick up and sorting models each have advantages and<br>drawbacks. This paper will involve a review of relevant academic studies on the topic and a case&nbsp;study of the city of Gatineau, which has recently transitioned from source separated to comingled&nbsp;collection allowing for a comparison of the two systems.</p> Adrian Jorre de St. Jorre ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Reflectance Transformation Imaging for Roman Coin Identification: Archaeology and Education https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/8997 <p>In 2001 the Department of Classics acquired pieces from the Diniacopolous family collection,&nbsp;along with a large number of coins. The majority of these coins were minted in Alexandria and&nbsp;vary in dates from the Hellenistic to the Byzantine period with the bulk from the Roman Imperial&nbsp;Period date range. While some of the coins are in decent condition and their legends and reliefs&nbsp;can be read with the naked eye, most require the use of imaging technology in order to be&nbsp;identified. This presentation will discuss results of a project currently underway to image the coins&nbsp;using Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI), a cost effective technique, which has also been&nbsp;used by the department at Cataraqui Cemetery to recover eroded tombstone inscriptions. While&nbsp;some coins were extensively eroded and thus could not be classified, the technique showed&nbsp;impressive results allowing most coins to be identified and dated. The presentation will also&nbsp;outline how RTI can be used in education, as bags of coins can be cheaply acquired by educators,&nbsp;thus allowing students at the primary and secondary school level to actively participate in&nbsp;deciphering corroded coins. This project demonstrates that RTI can be applied to a wide range of&nbsp;artefacts and is a valuable tool in preserving cultural heritage.</p> Ana Crisan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Scanning of Face-Scene or Object-Scene Pairs Reveals Implicit Relational Memory https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9000 <p>The hippocampus is thought to play a role in the formation of memories of relations among items&nbsp;in a scene (Cohen and Eichenbaum, 1993). Recently, we described a change detection task in&nbsp;which visual scanning of objects in a scene indicated explicit memory for those objects, and is&nbsp;thought to require hippocampal function (Chau, Murphy, Rosenbaum, Ryan, &amp; Hoffman, 2010). In&nbsp;contrast, a task pairing faces and scenes revealed that the scanning of faces can be used as a&nbsp;measure of implicit memory, yet it, too, is associated with hippocampal function (Hannula &amp;&nbsp;Ranganath, 2009). One difference between tasks is that the latter was never tested with objectscene&nbsp;pairs. In this study, we replicated the face-scene task, and added an object-scene condition&nbsp;to determine if the difference in scanning of previously shown pairs exists for objects-scene pairs&nbsp;and if, as with faces, this bias exists in the absence of explicit recall. Paired items were viewed&nbsp;preferentially, whether the items were faces or objects, and irrespective of whether recall was&nbsp;implicit or explicit. The bias towards the paired image emerged within the first 500 ms of viewing&nbsp;for all pairs, and the protracted response was stronger for explicit than implicit pairs. These results&nbsp;suggest that this task is effective whether using face or object stimuli, and could be used to tease&nbsp;apart the role of the hippocampus in explicit and implicit memory formation. Furthermore, its use&nbsp;of non-verbal measurements makes it amenable for use in animal models.<br>Authors: Branfield Day, Leora R.; Bartlett, Adrian M.; Leonard, Timothy K. and Hoffman, Kari L.</p> Leora Branfield Day ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Facial Recognition and Tracking using the Eigenface Technique https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9003 <p>Eigenfaces is a computer vision technique developed in 1991 by M. Turk and A.Pentland used to&nbsp;distinguish an image of a face with only a single 2D image. The purpose of this project was to&nbsp;develop a system capable of automatically recognizing and tracking a face throughout a real-time video using the Eigenfaces technique. These techniques take advantage of the assumptions that&nbsp;faces share relatively the same features and are usually upright. The Eigenfaces technique&nbsp;transforms several images of individual faces from an image into vectors based on the pixel values&nbsp;contained within the image. The vectors are then used to create an n-dimensional space in which&nbsp;future images can be placed to determine the likelihood the image contains a face. This project&nbsp;segments a single image into a grid and applies the Eigenface technique to each segment rather&nbsp;than the entire image. The result of this process is the successful application to each image in a&nbsp;video to track the movement of a face throughout the video in real time.</p> Mallory Ketcheson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 High Accuracy Photogrammetry of Historic Rock Art https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9006 <p>The petroglyphs of Petroglyph Park, Peterborough, created by the Algonquin Peoples between&nbsp;900 and 1400 A.D., were documented in 1983 by the Heritage Recording Directorate of the<br>Government of Canada. With the aim of rerecording the glyphs again at a later date to monitor&nbsp;the conditions and weathering, several sets of photogrammetric stereo pairs were taken of the&nbsp;site using Zeiss UMK and a Wild P-31 film cameras. After this project was completed, the site&nbsp;became designated as sacred and photography was no longer permitted, thus rendering the&nbsp;completion of a second recording of the site all but impossible. Therefore, the photographs taken&nbsp;of these magnificent petroglyphs in the 1980s are the most recent documentation&nbsp;available. Using the ADAMTech Mine Mapping Suite, developed in Perth Australia for the mining&nbsp;industry, I was able to bring these archival photos to life by creating dense 3D models that rival&nbsp;those produced by LiDAR. I used the photos, digitized in Ottawa on a Wehri RM-6&nbsp;photogrammetric scanner, to create 3D models of the glyphs. A similar Federal project from&nbsp;Writing on Stone National Park in Alberta also used film photogrammetry to record the glyphs at&nbsp;that site in 1982. From these images as well I was able to compile 3D models. It is hoped that by&nbsp;scanning the original glass-plate negatives from the 1980s, and not the film copies, as we have&nbsp;done thus far for both projects, measurement data of even greater accuracy (down to 60um) and&nbsp;density can be achieved.</p> Marla MacKinnon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Is There a Common Network for Processing Reward and Aversion in the Brain? https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9009 <p>How do our brains process and attach positive and negative value to the objects around us, the&nbsp;sensations we feel, and the experiences that we have? One method of examining these questions&nbsp;is to detect, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which areas of the human brain&nbsp;are activated when subjects are exposed to rewarding and aversive stimuli. Although many fMRI&nbsp;studies have concentrated on identifying a network of areas that become active in processing&nbsp;either reward or aversion, there is evidence of significant overlap between the “reward” and&nbsp;“aversion” networks, suggesting that the brain might process rewarding and aversive stimuli in a&nbsp;similar manner regardless of valence. Thus, a meta-analysis of fMRI studies involving rewarding&nbsp;and aversive stimuli was undertaken to determine the areas of the brain that are commonly and&nbsp;differentially activated by reward and aversion. The preliminary results indicate that regions of&nbsp;the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and&nbsp;basal ganglia were commonly activated by rewarding and aversive stimuli, while areas including&nbsp;the insula, midcingulate cortex, and parts of the hippocampus were differentially activated.&nbsp;Locating such commonalities and differences might help in our understanding of how the brain&nbsp;ascribes value to our environment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jiameng Xu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Multi-Spectral Imaging for Archeology https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9012 <p>Until recently multi-spectral imaging in the field of archaeology has been vastly under-utilized due&nbsp;to the great expense of using specialized films and cameras. A great deal of data remains hidden&nbsp;when observing artefacts such as papyri and pottery shards (ostraca) solely under visible light&nbsp;(400-700nm). The writings on these artefacts are often faded and illegible resulting in much of the&nbsp;information they store being lost. Our approach has been to use modified commercial cameras&nbsp;along with a Coastal Optics 60mm multi-spectra lens to enhance the contrast of the text through&nbsp;the use of Ultraviolet (300-390nm) and Infrared (700-1000nm) Reflectography and computer postprocessing&nbsp;of the RAW images. The results are stunning. A great deal of the text on these&nbsp;artefacts can been made legible and subsequently studied. The underlying principle comes from&nbsp;the fact that pigments and minerals reacting differently to the specific bandwidths of UV and IR&nbsp;light, thereby producing an enhanced contrast version of the once illegible artefact. This&nbsp;information can be later recorded and used to further the understanding of the object itself and&nbsp;the civilization of which it originated. In addition, this photographic technique can be further&nbsp;adapted to study non-textual artefacts such as paintings. These results are consistently obtained,&nbsp;readily reproduced and can be adapted to study all text upon papyri, ostraca and other cultural&nbsp;artefacts. Moreover, the system can be easily moved onsite to museums and galleries</p> Ian E. Longo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 What Determines Educational Performance? https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9015 <p>In a period where shrinkage of the public sector is without doubt at stake, this research highlights the importance of targeted public interventions aimed at improving the national educational performance on a cross-country basis. Starting from a general idea on some economic and social explanatory variables thought to affect the average PISA score, we find a coherent output from the conducted factor analysis. A statistical regression analysis highlights the importance of the public intervention at different levels of the educational system and the investments in social development, both running parallel to the effort in filling the inequality gap in the country. The most striking result from our research is that wealth inequalities, captured by the Gini coefficient, seem to be as relevant a cause of poor educational performance as the other factors, when compared at an international level. Based on a straight-forward but cogent statistical procedure, this research attempts to find compelling suggestions for the formulation of macroeconomic and social policies which have, as their main goal, the improvement of national educational performances in a context of global competition.</p> Andrea Gori ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Blended Learning & the Redesign of Psyc 100 https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9018 <p>A great deal of research has shown that lectures with large class sizes struggle to promote active learning resulting in poor knowledge acquisition and retention as well as limited conceptual understanding. Based on the benefits observed for blending learning models and small group learning in the literature, Introductory Psychology (Psyc 100) at Queen’s has recently undergone a massive redesign with the goal of improving the student experience.<br>The structure of Psyc 100 has been changed from 3 hours of traditional lecture a week to 1 hour of lecture, 1 hour of online learning, and 1 hour of learning lab per week. The goal of this redesign is to increase student engagement through learning labs, grant more freedom to pursue the course material via interactive online tasks, and delve deeper into exciting and relevant topics with more in-depth lectures.<br>The labs are specially designed with a student-centered approach that helps learners to engage with fellow students and the material through group discussions, quizzes, games, and debates. Upper year students majoring in Psychology comprise approximately 2/3 of the tutorial facilitators for these labs, which provide undergraduate students with an important opportunity to take a more active role in the Psychology department and develop a love for teaching.<br>We will present the research behind this redesign, demonstrate how it has been incorporated into the new Psyc 100 curriculum, and share our experiences as student facilitators through the ongoing refinement of the course.</p> Bawks Jordan Sammy Boggs ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 THATCampQueensU: Bringing Digital Humanities to Queen's https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9021 <p>There is a new generation of scholarship in the humanities, and it is rooted in twenty-first century technology. In response to what some have called the "crisis in humanities," scholars have begun to tackle their research questions armed with digital tools and a strong sense of collaboration in order to think across disciplines, allow for greater accessibility, and ultimately to create bigger impact. Digital Humanities, or DH, is this exciting and growing field--or maybe methodology--used by humanities scholars to share and create scholarly content.<br>Despite the growing fervour for DH across Canada, many scholars at Queen's have yet to take advantage of the opportunities for research and teaching afforded by DH. I believe that by bringing together Digital Humanities practitioners at Queen's University, more scholars, faculty, and students would learn about and engage in dialogue about fostering and furthering DH scholarship across all disciplines. The best way to begin, I believe, is by hosting THATCamp at Queen's. The Humanities and Technology Camp is an open, inexpensive meeting where humanists and technologists of all skill levels learn and build together in sessions proposed on the spot.</p> Maya Bielinski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Community Owned Renewable Energy: a Case for Economic Localization in Ontario https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9027 <p>Ontario is making some strides to promote renewable energy generation, but policies and incentives are ignoring the merits of scale of two renewable energy deployment options: community owned renewable energy and large-scale absentee owned renewables. This literature review discusses the sustainability of each option in terms of the three pillars of sustainable development: economic, environmental and social. Community owned renewable energy (CORE) projects are found to be more sustainable due to their participative process and distributive outcome. Studies from Europe and the UK show that CORE decreases opposition to renewable energy integration, has more economic impact than the centralized approach, and is a socially cohesive and empowering undertaking. The policy environment in Ontario, however, does not promote the growth of this deployment method. Changes must be made to transmission incentive structure for utilities to consider distributed generation, and laws concerning the limits of co-operatives as financial institutions, among many other changes, to provide a suitable avenue for sustainable deployment of a new energy system based on renewables</p> Philip Ballyk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Mining of Landfills for the Recovery of Resources https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9030 <p>There are many opportunities associated with the excavating of landfill sites. Many landfills were filled prior to large efforts in recycling and diversion tactics, which leads to many useful and valuable materials being hidden away from use. The prospect of reclaiming materials that were once buried relieves the need to use as much virgin materials for manufacturing and production processes. Organic materials that are recovered through landfill mining can be used to generate energy, or be utilized as cover material for the disposal facility. Through the removal of materials, more capacity can be generated within solid waste disposal systems, which can prolong the operating life of the facility, reduce the need to transport waste to other regions for disposal and ensure a longer period for which new landfills can be sited. Landfill mining is an option to recover valuable materials, storage capacity and generate energy but must be done where it is economically, socially and environmentally appropriate.</p> Chris Jungkunz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Mine Tailing Control and Remediation https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9033 <p>This paper is based on a mine located in northern Ontario, specifically the discharges within the mine tailings, the consequences of unsafe levels of chemical discharge and possible preventative methods. It discusses the location of the mine and surrounding area, the area that it covers, in particular the area of the tailings pond and the location of discharge associated with the tailings pond. The processes used in the mine will be reviewed such that the contaminants within the discharged water and the storage and treatment methods used are correlated to the hazard they pose to people and the environment. Based on the recorded data and regulations set by the Ministry of the Environment about the discharges it will be determined if there is any potential for exceeding the set regulations and suggest possible methods of decreasing the probability of this event occurring with the use of a permeable reactive barrier as a passive aid.</p> Vanessa Lee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Comparing Waste Systems in Canada and Sweden https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9036 <p>Canada and Sweden are two countries that are actively involved in environmental protection and both go as far as to declare themselves among the most environmentally friendly countries in the world. However, a report issued by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) ranked each participating country in twenty five key environmental factors and saw Canada place 28th overall out of the 29 participating countries. Sweden on the other hand saw itself coming in at a respectable 10th (Boyd, 2001). The similarities between the two countries in terms of Human Development Index (HDI), Gross Domestic Product (GDP), general climate and interest in environmental protection would at first impression imply similar standards of living and therefore waste production. However, the numbers clearly demonstrate the Sweden is well ahead of Canada in terms of generating and managing its waste.<br>The purpose of this study is to conduct a comparison of waste generation and composition between the two countries on a national scale as well as on a municipal one. Determining the differences between Canadians and Swedes from a waste generation perspective will highlight the cultural differences that create this phenomenon. On the other hand, the analysis of several different municipalities in each country will demonstrate the effects that policies can have on the way waste is managed and ultimately, how it will affect the environment. These analyses will help determine whether or not Canada can imitate Sweden and make its current waste management Canada can imitate Sweden and make its current waste management systems more efficient.</p> Rami Maassarani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Leachate Treatment Considerations in Cold Climates https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9039 <p>When water percolates through the solid waste in a landfill a leachate is generated that may contain dissolved organic material and heavy metals. Leachate can be treated in a variety of ways before being discharged, but parameters such as temperature can have an effect on the way leachate treatment is approached. In climates where the ambient temperature decreases during the winter months the leachate treatment process must be adapted to ensure the effluent being discharged meets all regulatory standards. This may include adding additional insulating elements to current technologies, or changing the technology used all together. This presentation will address the current issues associated with leachate treatment in cold climates including the effect of temperature on nitrification and denitrification. It will also examine the existing treatment technologies that are applicable for leachate treatment in cold climates and discuss their effectiveness based on the quality of the effluent being discharged.</p> Sarah Partanen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Land Use Change Effects on Soil Quality in Prince Edward County, ON https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9042 <p>Soils play a key role in Earth System function. When original vegetation cover is converted to cultivated land, soils often become degraded and lose their productivity potential. We examined the effects of land-use change on a clay/clay loam soil on a farm in Ameliasburg on the northern part of Prince Edward County. Three cover types were examined: perennial sod (for lawns), perennial switchgrass (potential bioengery crop) and undisturbed forest. For each soil type, cores to a depth of 40cm were collected along three random 30m transects (at 8, 16 and 24m), then divided into 10cm increments and combined along one transect according to depth. Soil quality was assessed by analyzing various soil physical and chemical properties. Bulk density was almost two-fold higher (1.5 vs. 0.82 g/cm3) in both grass systems compared to the forest, but only in the 0-10cm layer, likely due to surface compaction associated with land management. Soil pH was slightly lower in the forest compared to the switchgrass field. The sod and switchgrass fields showed losses of ~33% and ~53% organic matter, respectively in contrast to the forested area. The largest differences for organic matter and total carbon were in the top 20cm. Soil C: N ratios were highest for the forested site and lowest for the sod field. Although perennial grass systems often enhance soil quality compared to extensively tilled sites, it appears that long-term (10y) sod production has led to a decline in some, but not all, soil quality measures, particularly soil organic matter and carbon content.</p> Elizabeta Kjikjerkovska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Fighting For Ireland: The Creation of Northern and Southern Irish National Identity during the First World War https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9048 <p>The decade of 1912-1923 in Ireland was a period of transition, change, and bloodshed. By the end of the period Ireland had gone from a British colony to two separate nations, the Irish Free State&nbsp;and Northern Ireland. While the actions of radical ultra-nationalists and unionists insured this physical partition of Ireland, the psychological and cultural divide that dominates Irish society was also created during this period. The divide between north and south was created by the epic&nbsp;struggle of the First World War. Both northern and southern Irish attempted to use the war to&nbsp;reinforce their position in the new Ireland that was to be created at the war's conclusion. The&nbsp;results were drastically different for both sides as the south was driven into the arms of the ultranationalists&nbsp;and the north into the radical unionists. By looking at public monuments, widespread&nbsp;stereotypes and cultural works, the separation between northern and southern Ireland becomes&nbsp;obvious as each side interpreted the war on opposite ends of the spectrum. The south, with its&nbsp;republican-nationalist leaders choosing to ignore the war and the soldiers contributions to the&nbsp;creation of the new Irish state to the point where the nation now suffers from a "collective&nbsp;amnesia". In the north, the unionists took their role in the war to become one of the foundation&nbsp;stones in their culture and identity. Such veneration led the unionists to develop a culture of&nbsp;sacrifice and bloodshed, which has contributed to the violence in Northern Ireland.</p> Bryan McClure ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Blue Collar Brawlers and Harley Vagabonds: Masculinity in the Tavern and on the Road https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9051 <p>Outlaw motorcycle clubs, such as the Hells Angels, provide a modern interpretation of male&nbsp;working-class culture. Most notably, 19th century working-class taverns and fraternal orders can&nbsp;be seen as forerunners to the culture of outlaw motorcycle clubs, or ‘bikers.’ Within the confines&nbsp;of these spaces, men were able not only to learn male behaviour from others, but to reinforce&nbsp;their own masculinity through ritualized acts, such as drinking, singing, and fighting, resulting in&nbsp;an earned image for the culture and the space as one of violence, filth, and danger to those&nbsp;outside of the culture.&nbsp;This cultural reputation has carried over into the modern context of bikers. Originally formed to&nbsp;provide an adventurous outlet to, predominantly, young white men, biker culture has now&nbsp;become a complex and powerful subculture and image. Where early tavern culture was practiced&nbsp;largely in private, biker culture is defined and practiced in the public space, reinforcing its own&nbsp;reputation and image in the process. Despite, or perhaps because, of this public image, bikers have become deeply rooted in our collective subconscious, and represent, to some, a modern&nbsp;reinterpretation of the lone cowboy, making their own society in the face of all challenges.&nbsp;Bikers provide a modern examination of gendered spaces and masculinity. They have an element&nbsp;of danger and homosocial activities that make them particularly appealing to men looking for a&nbsp;masculine identity within a culture that they otherwise found less than welcoming – and which, in turn, did not welcome them.</p> Graeme Melcher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Cultural Mosaic Beliefs and Group Performance as Influenced by Attachment https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9054 <p>The purpose of this study is to test how group differences in attachment style interact with the&nbsp;degree of cultural mosaic beliefs present in multicultural groups to dramatically alter<br>identification, trust and cooperation among group members (Brodt, Adair &amp; Lituchy, 2008). Firstly&nbsp;I hypothesize that priming attachment style among group’s members will lead to changes in their&nbsp;group experience, particularly their cultural mosaic beliefs. The three different attachment styles&nbsp;will have different effects on their cultural mosaic beliefs, measured using an existing scale&nbsp;(Chuapetcharasopon, Brodt, Adair, Lituchy, Neville, &amp; Lowe, 2011). Secondly I hypothesize that&nbsp;priming attachment style among group members will lead to differences in the number of overall&nbsp;ideas and the number of culture-related ideas generated in a group brainstorming task.&nbsp;Attachment styles can change group interaction, causing these differences in group performance.&nbsp;Thirdly I hypothesize that the effect of attachment style on the number of overall ideas and&nbsp;number of culture-related ideas will be moderated by mosaic beliefs. If attachment style does&nbsp;have an effect on performance, it will depend on the interaction of attachment style and the&nbsp;process of establishing mosaic beliefs within a group. The data is currently being collected. The&nbsp;outcomes of this study are valuable for research as they will help our understanding of the cultural&nbsp;mosaic construct as it relates to multicultural groups in the Canadian workplace. It will also help&nbsp;our understanding of multicultural workgroups and the role attachment style plays in a group&nbsp;setting.&nbsp;</p> Kathryn Papke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 The Possibility of Public Reasons https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9057 <p>As we navigate our way through the world we are faced with difficult decisions, choices, and&nbsp;situations, which force us into action. Sometimes choosing one course of action over another is an&nbsp;easy process; at other times we must stop and evaluate our options. Either way, we hope that we&nbsp;make our decisions because of good reasons — reasons which appear not only good to ourselves,&nbsp;but to others around us as well. We often feel a peculiar tension between an inclination to hold&nbsp;reasons as extremely personal, and a desire for them to hold moral, normative weight in the&nbsp;public arena. In her paper “The Activity of Reason” and her book Self-Constitution, contemporary&nbsp;philosopher Christine Korsgaard offers an illuminating perspective on the public nature of&nbsp;reasons, coming to the alarming conclusion that my reasons are your reasons. Although the belief&nbsp;that all reasons are public may seem at first worrisome, for we all have projects and relationships&nbsp;which seem to us very private, I will demonstrate how Plato’s constitutional model of the soul&nbsp;provides a system of making sense of these private relations and meet skeptical challenges&nbsp;proposed by Korsgaard’s contemporaries. Understood in this manner, I will elucidate the&nbsp;relationship between reason and desire and reinforce the necessary role public reason plays in&nbsp;both personal integrity and the possibility of shared, normative, moral deliberation.</p> Elyse Platt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Social Capital and Residential Agency in Pujiang New Town, Shanghai https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9060 <p>Although it barely registered in social media and current news in North America, the Shanghai&nbsp;2010 World Expo was the most expensive urban reconstruction project in Chinese history and also&nbsp;caused the largest human relocation project in Shanghai history. To make way for the Expo, over18 000 families- an estimated 55 000 people- were relocated to the outskirts of Shanghai, away from their homes, communities, social connections and basic services. Of these residents, 25 000&nbsp;were relocated to Pujiang new town: a brand new town constructed for this occasion by the&nbsp;Shanghai government. Although the government and contracted urban planners built the town, it&nbsp;is the relocated residents who are building the community. Using personal interviews that I and&nbsp;my Shanghainese partner conducted with the residents of Pujiang new town, we aimed to find&nbsp;out how residents are regaining the “social capital” that was lost during their forced relocation,&nbsp;and how their “individual and collective agency” prevents them from being seen as victims of a&nbsp;strong centralized government. In order to understand how this unique case of urban&nbsp;development was created, I will also be explaining the historical causes of the project, and it’s&nbsp;social and political consequences. However, it is the overarching question of “how does China see&nbsp;urban development, and why?” that I wish to answer</p> Carolyn Richardson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 White People Ain’t Left Us Nothin’ But the Underworld: Historicity, Race and the American Dream in Ridley Scott’s American Gangster https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9063 <p>Released in 2007, Ridley Scott’s American Gangster tracks the career of Frank Lucas (Denzel&nbsp;Washington), who dominated the Harlem drug trade in the 1960s and 70s through his monopoly&nbsp;over heroin, which he imported directly from Vietnam and Thailand. The film follows the&nbsp;character of Detective Richie Roberts (Russell Crowe), who led the police task force ultimately&nbsp;responsible for toppling Lucas’ regime. This paper investigates the historical validity of the film,&nbsp;taking into consideration the consultant role Roberts and Lucas adopted during production&nbsp;alongside the political implications of Scott’s decision to cinematize (and so implicitly condone)&nbsp;the life of a convicted drug lord and accused murderer. It examines both filmic elements of music,&nbsp;casting and cinematography as well sociological concerns of race, space, masculinity and class in&nbsp;order to determine whether the film realistically portrays the lived experience of gang members&nbsp;and Harlem residents alike. Moreover, it considers the film’s political backdrop and its&nbsp;engagement with events like the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights Movement and the 1970s&nbsp;recession. Ultimately, the paper concludes that despite Scott’s efforts to undermine traditional&nbsp;iconography by portraying Lucas as a complex, rational and respected outlaw-businessman, the&nbsp;narrative’s lack of critical engagement with the socio-economic context of its era ultimately&nbsp;render it presentist in style, content and intention.</p> Laura Sampson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 1. Effect of Gender Cues in Audio Narratives on Same-Gender Attracted Women’s Psychophysiological Sexual Arousal https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9066 <p>The purpose of my honours thesis project is to gain further understanding of subjective&nbsp;and genital arousal patterns of women who have varying degrees of same-gender<br>attractions. While other-gender attracted women show a category-nonspecific or&nbsp;generalized pattern of sexual response to their preferred and nonpreferred gender, samegender<br>attracted women show a category-specific pattern of responding, with&nbsp;significantly greater sexual response to their preferred gender, when exposed to lowintensity audiovisual stimuli (Chivers, Seto, &amp; Blanchard, 2007). Past research has&nbsp;examined same-gender attracted women’s sexual responses to audiovisual stimuli&nbsp;(Chivers et al., 2007) and other-gender attracted women’s sexual responses to audio&nbsp;narratives (Chivers &amp; Timmers, in press); however, no research to date has focused on&nbsp;same-gender attracted women’s sexual responses to audio narratives, which is a less&nbsp;intense stimulus modality (e.g., Heiman, 1980). Study procedure involved presentation of&nbsp;sexual and nonsexual audio narratives, which described interactions with male and female&nbsp;partners, to women with varying degrees of same-gender attractions. I will examine the&nbsp;category-specificity of same-gender attracted women’s genital and subjective sexual&nbsp;response. I expect that same-gender attracted women will have a category-specific&nbsp;pattern of sexual response, with significantly greater genital and subjective sexual arousal&nbsp;to sexual stories featuring a female partner. Also, I expect that genital and subjective&nbsp;arousal to sexual stories featuring a female partner will increase with degree of samegender<br>attraction.</p> Katrina Bouchard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 2. The Effects of Sociosexual Orientation, Gender and Relationship Context Cues in Audio Narratives on Heterosexual Men's Genital and Subjective Sexual Response. https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9069 <p>Past research suggests that heterosexual men show a category-specific pattern of sexual&nbsp;arousal, showing greater arousal to stimuli depicting women than those depicting men.<br>Gender is not, however, the only factor affecting sexual arousal in men. Research has&nbsp;shown that men regard relationship context as an important factor in sexual arousal.<br>Additionally, men show greater sexual arousal to novel than to familiar sexual stimuli.&nbsp;Sociosexuality, the preference for committed or uncommitted sexual relationships,<br>affects behaviour and partner preferences. The current study investigates the relationship&nbsp;between sociosexuality, gender cues, relationship context cues, and sexual arousal in men<br>by assessing 25 heterosexual men’s genital and subjective sexual arousal to 18 audio&nbsp;narratives describing sexual or neutral encounters with female and male strangers,<br>friends, or long-term relationship partners. I expect that heterosexual men will show&nbsp;greater subjective and genital arousal in response to stimuli depicting a sexual encounter&nbsp;with a woman than to stimuli depicting a sexual encounter with a man, replicating&nbsp;previous research. I hypothesize that there will be an interaction between gender cues&nbsp;and relationship context, such that men will show greater sexual arousal to stimuli&nbsp;depicting novel female sexual partners (strangers and friends) than to stimuli depicting&nbsp;familiar female sexual partners (long-term partners). I predict that higher sociosexuality&nbsp;scores, indicating a greater preference for uncommitted sexual relationships, will&nbsp;correlate with greater sexual arousal to uncommitted relationship contexts (strangers or&nbsp;friends), whereas lower sociosexuality scores, will correspond with greater sexual arousal&nbsp;to the committed relationship context (long-term partner).</p> Jenna Brandon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 3. Clinical Trials Knowledge in Oncology Patients: a Comparison of Actual Knowledge versus Trialists’ Priorities https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9072 <p>Background: Advancements in oncology depend on clinical trials, yet recruitment to trials&nbsp;remains poor. Previous efforts to increase enrolment by providing educational materials<br>to patients have improved patient understanding of trials, but not recruitment. To&nbsp;understand the clinical trials knowledge gaps among oncology patients, surveys of&nbsp;patients and trialists were conducted and compared.&nbsp;Methods: Patients completed a questionnaire measuring their understanding of key&nbsp;concepts in clinical trials. Twenty-two “true/false/do not know” knowledge questions, two&nbsp;5-point Likert opinion questions, one free-text space and demographics were collected.&nbsp;Trialists (nurses and physicians) completed 13 five-point Likert scale questions plus freetext&nbsp;space to measure the importance they placed on patient knowledge of specific&nbsp;topics. The relationship between what trialists valued and actual patient knowledge was&nbsp;compared.&nbsp;Results: Patients thought they had a good understanding of clinical trials (50%) however&nbsp;this apparent understanding of clinical trials was not reflected in the scoring as only 58.3%&nbsp;(SD 23.5) of questions were answered correctly. There were positive associations shown&nbsp;between education level, personal belief of understanding and willingness to join a clinical&nbsp;trial with percentage of correct responses (p=0.006, p&lt;0.001, p=0.002 respectively). For&nbsp;topics given high knowledge priority by trialists, patients gave correct answers for less<br>than 50%.&nbsp;Conclusion: Among patients with cancer, there is a poor knowledge of clinical trials and a&nbsp;gap between what trialists think patients ought to know and actual patient<br>understanding. These results support the development of educational materials on clinical&nbsp;trials for oncology.</p> Paul Cameron ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 4. Adaptive Gaze Control in an Observational Learning Task https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9075 <p>The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence how people look at&nbsp;objects they will have to act upon while watching others interact with them first. We&nbsp;investigated whether including different types of task-relevant information into an&nbsp;observational learning task would result in participants adapting their gaze towards an&nbsp;object with more task-relevant information. The participant watched an actor&nbsp;simultaneously lift and replace two objects with two hands then was cued to lift one of the&nbsp;two objects. The objects had the potential to change weight between each trial. In our cue&nbsp;condition, participants were cued to lift one of the objects every single time. In our object&nbsp;condition, the participants were cued equally to act on both objects; however, the weights&nbsp;of only one of the objects would have the potential to change. The hypothesis in the cue&nbsp;condition was that the participant would look significantly more at the object being cued.&nbsp;The hypothesis for the object condition was that the participant would look significantly&nbsp;more (i.e. adapt their gaze) at the object changing weight. The rationale behind this is&nbsp;that participants will learn to allocate their gaze significantly more towards that object so&nbsp;they can gain information about its properties (i.e. weight change). Pending results will&nbsp;indicate whether or not this occurred, and has implications for understanding eye&nbsp;movement sequences in visually guided behaviour tasks. The outcome of this study also&nbsp;has implications for the mechanisms of eye gaze with respect to social learning tasks.&nbsp;</p> James Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 5. Does It Matter What Your Employees Do Outside of Work? - Off-Duty Conduct and its Implications for Organizations and their Employees https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9078 <p>This research is among the first to explore the phenomenon of off-duty conduct and its&nbsp;implications for organizations and their employees. This research reviewed cases of offduty<br>conduct to understand the nature of conduct that faced arbitration, the discipline&nbsp;imposed for the conduct, and the arguments made by the parties about the impact of the<br>conduct on the organization itself.&nbsp;In 1967, a case in Ontario (Re Millhaven Fibres Ltd. &amp; Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers&nbsp;I.U. Loc. 9-670,[[1967] O.L.A.A. No. 4]) set out five factors to evaluate the impact of an&nbsp;employee’s off-duty conduct on the organization. Analysis was based on explicit mention&nbsp;of one or more Millhaven principles.&nbsp;The research included 116 diverse Canadian arbitration cases. Examples of infractions in&nbsp;the sample pool include: theft, drug trafficking, vandalism, assault, tax fraud, murder,&nbsp;sexual assault, drug manufacturing, impaired driving, political protest, and defamatory&nbsp;statements.&nbsp;Trend analyses led to the preliminary conclusion that employers will use reputational&nbsp;damage (one of the five Millhaven principles) as an umbrella defense in arbitration. These&nbsp;findings raise the question of the effectiveness of the reputation Millhaven principle as a&nbsp;valid argument. The initial findings from this&nbsp; &nbsp;research also shed some light on&nbsp;organizations’ reactions to the off-duty conduct of their employees. Further research of&nbsp;interest will include a larger sample with reputation specific grievances to determine if an&nbsp;&nbsp;abnormally large number of reputation-based grievances are allowed.</p> Matei Olaru ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 6. An Investigation of the Spatial Differences in Mercury Burdens of Small Fish in a St-Lawrence River Impoundment Reservoir: the Role of Water Level Fluctuations https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9081 <p>In many hydroelectric reservoirs across Canada, fish exhibit elevated mercury burdens.&nbsp;This is thought to occur due to the flooding of soil with water level fluctuations. Periods of<br>high water level may cause mercury from shoreline soil to be released into the water,&nbsp;which may make it available for methylation by sulfur-reducing bacteria in the sediment<br>and phytoplankton on plants. The amount of methylmercury produced during periods of&nbsp;high water level may depend on the topography of the shoreline; if the shoreline has a<br>gentle slope, more of its surface area would be covered during rises in water level than if&nbsp;the shoreline has a steep slope. I hypothesize that bays within a reservoir that have a&nbsp;gentle slope and a relatively large amount of vegetation (vegetation provides habitat for&nbsp;periphyton) will have more mercury than steeply-sloped bays with little vegetation. To<br>test this hypothesis, I have collected 10 each of the 3 most abundant fish (≤100 mm) from&nbsp;3 bays in eastern Lake St. Lawrence (an impoundment reservoir with water fluctuations ≤2<br>meters throughout the year) at Massena, NY. I will use stable isotopes to infer the trophic&nbsp;level and food web of each fish in order to determine spatial patterns of mercury<br>distribution. This study may improve our knowledge of mercury methylation patters in&nbsp;water reservoirs, and provide us with information necessary to properly manage the StLawrence<br>River water reservoirs.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Michele Parisien ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 7. The British Migration State: Britain's Internal Controls on Immigration Through Welfare Policy https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9084 <p>By looking at the main trends and major changing points of internal immigration control,&nbsp;this project highlights the way in which the social security system has been transformed<br>to become a tool of governmental policy enforcement rather than the repository of&nbsp;universal rights ideology. The shift in the value placed on and treatment of migrants over<br>the past 30 years has been substantive. Once a necessary and sought after supply of&nbsp;labour and demographic growth, newcomers have become a stigmatized ethnic category,<br>a danger to societal cohesion and a parasite on the welfare system. In order to constantly&nbsp;manage and monitor them, the government has exploited the close relation between<br>benefits and immigration to create an unstructured, yet increasingly visible, internal&nbsp;control system. An analysis of policy will show how every act slowly increases the<br>resources allocated for direct enforcement of immigration controls by bringing new&nbsp;employees into the network of those responsible for indirect enforcement such as<br>immigration officers, police, health or education staff, or even employers. By spreading&nbsp;the responsibility for enforcement among a variety of agencies (both state and private)<br>whose concern is not immigration, the British Home Office created a machinery&nbsp;specifically designed to have power over every aspect of an immigrant or asylum seeker’s<br>experience in the United Kingdom.</p> Alexandra Petra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 8. Why is it so Challenging for Adults to Acquire a Second Language?: An Evolutionary Perspective https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9090 <p>Many aspects of human behaviour and human phenomena can be analyzed using Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Darwin’s theory states that the traits present in human ancestors that left behind the most descendants are the very traits that are passed on to future generations. The trait that will be examined in this poster is second language acquisition. It will explore the reasons why it so difficult for adults to learn and master a second language. Our earliest ancestors had no linguistic ability; therefore, we developed the anatomical features that allowed for spoken language. These changes allowed for rapid language acquisition in young children up until adolescence, but did not support such language acquisition in adults. Our evolutionary past as nomads and hunter-gatherers ultimately explains this phenomenon. The nomadic society of humans was small in size, which led to a lack of inter-cultural contact. There was thus no incentive to learn to communicate with individuals whose language differed from one’s own. In addition, the short life expectancy of our ancestors left little time to become fluent in another language. Finally, in situations of inter-cultural contact, the most violent group prevailed. It is important to understand that the challenges of adult language acquisition have an evolutionary basis because it will allow us to design effective language acquisition techniques.</p> Cristiana Mergianian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 9. Seashells in the Jordanian Desert: a Cross-Cultural Analysis https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9093 <p>The remains of ancient communities have been found at Wadi Ramm and Humayma, Jordan in the midst of what is now the Jordanian desert. In past times these sites were located along caravan routes and were populated by Nabataean, Roman, Byzantine, and early Islamic peoples. Despite the fact that these sites are located tens of kilometers from the seashore, seashells are frequently found in the layers associated with the different population groups. As of yet, shells from the 1996-1997 excavations at Wadi Ramm and from the 2008-2010 excavations at Humayma have not received in depth analyses allowing them to be correctly identified, quantified, and associated with significant archaeological contexts. Archaeomalacology (the study of molluscs in archaeological contexts) is a vital part of deciphering ancient human diet and activity. It is also critical in determining past environments and transportation systems. Clearly these shells came from the sea, but how did they get to these remote desert locales? Based on the preliminary descriptions provided by the field excavators, the photographs of the Wadi Ramm shells, and the actual Humayma shells which are at Queen’s, I am creating a catalogue to identify, describe, and quantify the variety of mollusc species present. This catalogue incorporates all of the significant data in one place, thus allowing me to look for patterns in the frequency, condition, and probable function of the shells. This analysis will lead to a better understanding of the diet and cultural practices of the different ancient inhabitants at Wadi Ramm and Humayma.</p> Samantha Rice ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 10. Women and Poverty: The Feminization of Urban Poverty in Canada https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9096 <p>Poverty is disproportionately experienced among men and women. Gender plays a significant role when examining the effects and problems that poverty poses. While poverty can be experienced in differing extremes, it is women who suffer higher poverty rates in almost all societies (Christopher et al.). It is people with disabilities, recent immigrants, and racialized men and women who face additional disadvantages and “all of these groups have extremely high rates of low income and, in all of them, women are the most vulnerable” (Townson). In this paper I discuss how the ‘feminization of poverty’ has created a situation where the number of women in poverty far outnumbers that of men, and how the discourse of feminized poverty is directly affected by the processes and structures of social exclusion. I argue that gender significantly influences the experience and response to urban poverty in Canada through unequal caregiving responsibilities, the dynamics that surround pay inequality, and inadequate government programs.</p> Laura G. Ritenburg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 11. Traditional Knowledge and Modern Agriculture https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9099 <p>As part of our studies in ENSC 315 “Global Food Securities” we are conducting research upon the topic of how traditional ecological and agricultural knowledge and practices can inform and shape sustainable modern agricultural (crop and livestock) strategies in the context of increasing global food demand and decreasing agricultural resource availability. We are using “Traditional Knowledge” as an umbrella term that encompasses agricultural practices spanning from ancient aboriginal knowledge to just before the baby-boomer-incited spike in global food demand. Through rigorous literature review of primary and secondary documents, we are exploring practical traditional knowledge and ecological paradigms and applying them to modern agricultural operation models. We aim to highlight the difficulties that arise in striving for a traditional knowledge-informed sustainable agricultural model, but also to emphasize the benefits this traditional knowledge can provide in the ongoing global food crisis. Through our research, we ultimately hope to explore a workable solution to the over-exploitive agricultural practices of the modern world that is informed by traditional ecological/agricultural knowledge and ecocentric paradigms.</p> Colin Robinson Helen McConnell Raeya Jakiw ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 12. Evaluation of Optimal Storage and Transport Medium for the Detection of Group B Streptococcus in StrepB Carrot Broth https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9102 <p>Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns in the USA and optimal detection of GBS colonization in pregnant women is paramount. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised consensus guidelines for the prevention of GBS disease to include identification by chromogenic media such as StrepB Carrot Broth (CB). However, limited data are available to determine the optimal storage and transport medium (TM) required to optimize GBS survival. We compared ESwab and Amies TM to recover GBS in CB for up to 144 h at 4oC, 21oC and 24oC. 50 isolates of GBS from vaginorectal swabs were evaluated. 100 μL aliquots of 103 CFU/mL suspensions were inoculated onto Amies and ESwab TM and stored at the evaluated times and temperatures. At 24 h time periods, Amies and ESwab TM were inoculated into CB and incubated for 24 h. Results were quantified as 0, 1+, 2+, 3+, and 4+ with the degree of pigmentation correlating with the recovery of GBS. ESwab was superior to Amies at all temperatures but was optimal at 21ºC and 24ºC, whereas recovery in Amies was significantly decreased at these temperatures. Results support the use of CB to facilitate detection of GBS. Furthermore, this demonstrates that ESwab TM is superior to Amies TM for recovery of GBS, particularly when stored at 21ºC and 24ºC. In light of these findings, the CDC may consider expanding the recommendations to include alternate transport systems in addition to non-nutritive medium.</p> Grant A. Trotman Dien Bard J. Raney ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 13. Debunking the Ultimatum Game https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9105 <p>This research examines the “ultimatum game” studied in Experimental Economics. The game goes as follows: a proposer has to split $20 between himself and a responder. After the money is divided, the responder then either accepts or rejects the offer. Accept would results in the money being split according to the proposer’s offer while reject results in $0 for both players. According to mainstream economics’ assumption of self-interest maximization, the responder would accept any amount of money offered by the proposer because anything is better than $0. Meanwhile, the proposer, knowing this, would offer the responder the lowest possible amount. However, results from the experiment shows that most responders rejected low offers and most proposers offer much more than the lowest possible amount. By studying several versions of the ultimatum game and conducting primary research, 5 different variables other than the ratio to which the total sum of money is divided were identified to affect outcome. These are: anonymousness, fear of rejection, perception of the roles, ownership of the money, and total sum of money. Then based on the observations, a graphical model was created that described how the 5 factors affect the game outcome. The implications of this research is that decision making models in economics has to be made more valid by accounting for more qualitative factors such as the ones in this experiment. Only when those factors are accounted for as part of the calculation of utility/satisfaction could the assumption of maximizing self-interest be made.</p> Hank Xu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 14. By Students, For Students: Adapting Inquiry-Based Learning for Undergraduate Human Anatomy Education in a Large Class Setting https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9108 <p>Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is a well-documented educational paradigm that has been adopted for the teaching of various subjects. In the interest of finding novel methods of teaching a traditionally lecture-based subject, IBL was adopted into an undergraduate human anatomy course in 2009 as a project called Inquiry 216. This project allows students to engage in a group-oriented and open-ended research project culminating in a free-format presentation. Since its inception, Inquiry 216 has undergone multiple revisions in methodology, with particular attention paid to formalizing the role of student facilitation, encouraging graduates of Inquiry 216 to become facilitators, and the evaluation and subsequent improvement of IBL in the context of Inquiry 216. A chronological account of conception, issue identification, objective and subjective evaluation and improvement of Inquiry 216 to its present model is illustrated, along with a specific emphasis on the benefits of student-based facilitation. We suggest that successful development, evaluation and improvement of IBL as a parallel to didactic education can further enhance students’ potential and enthusiasm for learning across various subjects.</p> Ralph T. T. Yeung Wyanne Law Lauren Anstey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 15. African Canadians' Struggle within the Canadian Justice System https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9111 <p>The following posters are a result of research done by the students in Dr. Cynthia Levine-Rasky’s Sociology 233: ‘Race’ and Racialization course. These ten posters were chosen by the entire class to be exhibited at I@Q.</p> Ariel Bonneau ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 16. Discrimination Against Roma People in Canada https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9114 <p>The following posters are a result of research done by the students in Dr. Cynthia Levine-Rasky’s Sociology 233: ‘Race’ and Racialization course. These ten posters were chosen by the entire class to be exhibited at I@Q.</p> Alexandra Fraser ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 17. Islamophobia in Canada https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9120 <p>The following posters are a result of research done by the students in Dr. Cynthia Levine-Rasky’s Sociology 233: ‘Race’ and Racialization course. These ten posters were chosen by the entire class to be exhibited at I@Q.</p> Darcy Vidler ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 18. Sleeping Car Porters in Canada (1917-1964) https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9123 <p>The following posters are a result of research done by the students in Dr. Cynthia Levine-Rasky’s Sociology 233: ‘Race’ and Racialization course. These ten posters were chosen by the entire class to be exhibited at I@Q.</p> Sonja Moroz Gillian Craig ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 19. Scientific Racism https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9144 <p>The following posters are a result of research done by the students in Dr. Cynthia Levine-Rasky’s Sociology 233: ‘Race’ and Racialization course. These ten posters were chosen by the entire class to be exhibited at I@Q.</p> Alisha Donovan Chelsea Wong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 20. Social Darwinism: A Look at Its Role in the Development of Eugenics https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9147 <p>The following posters are a result of research done by the students in Dr. Cynthia Levine-Rasky’s Sociology 233: ‘Race’ and Racialization cours<br>These ten posters were chosen by the entire class to be exhibited at I@Q.</p> Margaret Gra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 21. Africville: An Honoured Legacy? https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9150 <p>The following posters are a result of research done by the students in Dr. Cynthia Levine-Rasky’s Sociology 233: ‘Race’ and Racialization cours<br>These ten posters were chosen by the entire class to be exhibited at I@Q.</p> Jamie Johnstone Nzeba Tshimanga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 22. Residential Schools and Normative Racism https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9153 <p>The following posters are a result of research done by the students in Dr. Cynthia Levine-Rasky’s Sociology 233: ‘Race’ and Racialization cours<br>These ten posters were chosen by the entire class to be exhibited at I@Q.</p> Nicole Moore Rachel Hay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 23. Africville: The Clash between Institutional Racism and Black Loyalists https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9156 <p>The following posters are a result of research done by the students in Dr. Cynthia Levine-Rasky’s Sociology 233: ‘Race’ and Racialization cours<br>These ten posters were chosen by the entire class to be exhibited at I@Q.</p> Kathryn Papke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 24. Hong Kong: A Hybridic Racial Identity https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9159 <p>The following posters are a result of research done by the students in Dr. Cynthia Levine-Rasky’s Sociology 233: ‘Race’ and Racialization cours<br>These ten posters were chosen by the entire class to be exhibited at I@Q.</p> Kirsten Poole Tracy Wu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05 Is Heavy Fuel Oil Toxic to Fish? https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/inquiryatqueens/article/view/9162 <p>Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) is used as fuel on large ships, and is the product remaining after refining crude oil. Because HFO has equal or greater density than crude oil, it can sink and interact with species that are not normally exposed to oil when spilled, having potentially drastic ecosystem effects. The animals at risk include fish, such as rainbow trout (<em>Oncorhynchus mykiss</em>), using gravel spawning shoals. This study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and toxicity of HFO 7102 sub-fractions. Previous work in this study involved chemically separating HFO 7102 into fractions F2-F4 and testing the toxicity of each fraction with rainbow trout bioassays in a process known as Effects-Driven Chemical Fractionation. The most toxic fraction (F3) was separated into fractions F3-1 and F3-2, and bioassayed using rainbow trout. As F3-1 proved more toxic, it was selected for chemical separation. As part of this ongoing project, my research involves rainbow trout bioassays using acute and chronic exposure times to assess relative toxicities of fractions F3-1-1 to F3-1-4. Chemical analysis will identify the compounds in each fraction to determine which ones are included in the most toxic fraction. It is predicted that F3-1-2 will be most toxic because it has the highest total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content, which are compounds known to induce toxicity. An improved understanding of the compounds in HFO responsible for toxicity will provide useful information in predicting risk associated with using HFO 7102 and potential ecosystem implications in the event of an oil spill.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Keenan Munno ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-02-05 2016-02-05