Inquiry@Queen's Undergraduate Research Conference Proceedings <p>Welcome to the&nbsp;Inquiry at Queen's Undergraduate Research Conference Proceedings!</p> <p>This Open Access online journal showcases the proceedings&nbsp;of the annual I@Q conference at Queen's University, highlighting the creative thinking of undergraduate students at Queen's.</p> Queen's University en-US Inquiry@Queen's Undergraduate Research Conference Proceedings <p>Authors who publish with this journal retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication of the work.</p> Children’s Right to Sexual Education Despite Religious Concerns Raised by Parents: A Case Study of the 2015 Ontario “sex-ed” Curriculum <p>A critical case approach is taken to address religious opposition to recent changes in curriculum regarding sex education in Ontario public schools. This includes consideration of the influence of the Christian "purity movement" that is popularized in some parts of North American culture.</p> <p>In a recent Ontario study of parents of elementary and secondary students, 95% of parents agreed that some level of sexual health education should be provided in schools. A separate 2016 poll showed that 82% of parents self-identifying with "no religion" supported the revisions, as did 61% of Catholic parents, 55% of Protestant parents, and 20% of Pentecostal Christians. One in six Ontario parents considered pulling their children from public school over the new sex-ed curriculum, in favour of homeschooling their children or placing them in private Catholic schools. Of the parents who did remove their children from sex education, the majority did so for religious reasons.</p> <p>And yet, evidence suggests that depriving children of sexual health information as a result of the religious identity of a child’s family is a form of unlawful discrimination that may result in physical, sexual, and/or psychological harm to the child. This paper submits that the option for parents to be able to remove their children from sex-education lessons in schools due to a conflict with their religious and cultural values violates children’s human rights in accordance with international law as per the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Andie Rexdiemer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 “Working in Concert”: Examining Music’s Role in Cross-Curricular Education <p>The purpose of this presentation is to investigate the power of the cross-curricular teaching and learning practice while exploring the relationship between music and other subject areas in an educational environment. In recent years, the curriculum of countries such as Sweden, Australia, and the United Kingdom, has placed greater emphasis on utilizing the cross-curricular learning and teaching practice. This progressive pedagogy strives to engage students by connecting different curricular areas within an activity or lesson. Students have the opportunity to engage in a deeper form of learning, applying their knowledge and transferring their skills as they discover similarities between distinct subject areas. Additionally, the cross-curricular practice can attract pupils to disciplines that otherwise might not have held their attention. As everyday life is filled with tasks that draw on multiple subject areas, this teaching approach ultimately enables the educational system to better prepare pupils for their future. However, the cross-curricular practice can pose a challenge to teachers who lack confidence in their knowledge of content across the many curricular areas. This is particularly relevant to music education, as many teachers who do not possess a solid knowledge base of skills and techniques shy away from incorporating music into their teaching practice. Nevertheless, cross-curricular learning seems to be a valuable learning process, therefore, I will discuss method of incorporating music into cross-curricular lessons in order to provide</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Emily Browne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 An Identity Prescribed & Non-Negotiable: The Childhood of Tibetan Tulkus <p>A lama is a spiritual leader or guider of the dharma in Tibetan Buddhism. When a lama dies their spirit is said to move into the body of an infant born shortly after their death, and this child is called a tulku. The word tulku translates to the Sanskrit word nirmanakaya. This means "pure physical body," and is in reference to a fully enlightened being. In the following essay, I engage in a discussion about the childhood experiences and notions of individuality of Tibetan tulkus. Due to the shortage of academic material on this topic, I draw on personal written accounts of specific tulkus and from these make my own inferences and conclusions. By exploring notions of discipline, familial relationships, personal autonomy, identity, and exploitation, I argue that the recognition and identification as a tulku does not allow one to experience an ordinary childhood and deprives one of pursuing a normative or undisturbed upbringing. In this essay, I utilize the term ‘normative’ to mean any version or rendition of childhood that the child would have experienced had they not been identified as a tulku. I hope my findings will be useful in further discussions about whether a child’s putative identity changes their right to access a typical childhood characterized by family, leisure, and personal exploration, or whether their tulku status overrides and reconditions this right.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amy Hetherington ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 Evaluating the effectiveness of Let’s Talk Period’s educational outreach for high school students <p>Von Willebrand Disease, the most common bleeding disorder, is inherited equally by men and women, though bleeding symptoms are usually more evident in females due to their menstrual cycles and childbirth. The goal of developing a youth outreach project was to empower young female high school students with knowledge and resources about abnormal bleeding. The 75-minute presentation was given to five Grade 9 Girls’ Health classes across the Limestone District School Board, and led by a Hemophilia Nurse, supported by a Clinical Research Assistant and a 2nd year undergraduate student, who interacted with students and documented the presentation with photographs. Queen’s REB approved the project, and parental and student permission was obtained for photographs. Using Kahoot, an interactive online quiz program, students participated in short pre- and post-presentation quizzes to evaluate their knowledge and learning. Questions including "True/False: Iron deficiency is normal and expected among young females," were posed within the set of 9 questions on topics of anemia, menstruation, and abnormal bleeding. 84 students participated, aged 14 and 15, and 58 had evaluable quiz results. The results showed an average pre-presentation score of 77%, ranging from 72-83%, with a post-presentation quiz average of 92%, ranging from 83-95%. It was determined that students’ post-presentation scores were significantly higher (p&lt;0.001) than those before the presentation, providing evidence for an increase in student understanding. Testing efficacy of these presentations can help determine their level of utility as a resource for health teachers to implement in their classrooms.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lubnaa Hossenbaccus ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 Failures of the M’Naghten Rules: Women and the Insanity Defence in Victorian England <p>This paper examines the medicolegal insanity defence in criminal trials in Victorian England. It analyzes the test for criminal liability embodied in a set of rules called the M’Naghten rules that followed the trial and acquittal of Daniel M’Naghten in 1843. The paper examines the difficulties in upholding the rules in criminal case law in the middle decades of the 19th century. The research question that will be addressed is: what role did gender play when determining the mental condition of the accused in Victorian society? Moreover, how did gender affect the treatment and the punishment of mentally ill individuals who had been convicted of crimes, and how did the stigma of mental illness shape treatment and punishment? Rather than being labelled as insane, people suffering from mental illnesses were sometimes given the titles "missing," "absent," and "unconscious." What happened to those who did not meet the legal criteria to be tried as mentally insane? Finally, what difficulties did the courts and testifying physicians face while interpreting criminal responsibility? The paper will investigate key legal cases and trial narratives in several Victorian novels to draw conclusions about the cultural history of the insanity defence.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sara Buder ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 Women in North American Sports: Why Are Young Girls Dropping Out? <p>By the age of fourteen, young girls are dropping out of sports at two times the rate of boys. Society has worked towards changing this statistic by including women in the male dominated institution of organized sports, yet females are still faced with traditional stereotypes, ultimately limiting their physical expression. Women are expected not to demonstrate characteristics deemed as masculine, which often dissuades females from lifting weights, sweating, participating, and competing in sports as a whole. Although these standards have changed over the twentieth century, when the principle of femininity is brought up, women are expected to live up to their specific gender roles and face a significant wage gap. In 2015, the champions of the Women’s World Cup received $2 million while the men’s team pocketed $35 million for winning the previous year, a $33 million difference. Not to mention that the women’s team had more viewership on Fox for the same event. On top of this, society places a pressure upon its citizens to conform with the majority. The stigma in society that women participating in sport promotes homosexuality often associates female athletes as masculine, lesbian, or butch. These ignorant societal beliefs foster an unhealthy lifestyle for young girls throughout North America. While a different factor comes into play for each athlete, more often than not a tipping point is reached. Once the motivation behind these young girls dropping out of sports is universally understood, headway can be made towards ensuring women flourish in North American society.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sarah Cvetkovski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 "More Than a Woman": Elizabeth I's Self-Representation as an Exceptional Woman in "The Golden Speech" <p><span style="font-size: small;">In </span><em><span style="font-family: Corbel,Corbel; font-size: small;">The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women</span></em><span style="font-size: small;">, John Knox vehemently argues against women’s capacity to rule because of what he believes to be their natural inferiority to men. However, he also allows for the possibility of outstanding women who have been elevated by God, through no merit of their own, as an exception to their otherwise weak sex. Queen Elizabeth I’s rhetorical strategy, in the "Golden Speech" and elsewhere, relies heavily on this construct of the exceptional woman as a means of legitimizing her power within a patriarchal system of governance. Elizabeth presents herself as an exceptional woman by justifying her authority through God, negating her learned eloquence in the very act of expressing herself, and maintaining the inferiority of women in order to foreground herself as uniquely powerful. She furthers her exceptionality by claiming a special access to masculine modes of authority, constructing an authority that is inseparable from herself and thus not available to women generally. Reading Elizabeth through this strategy undermines the idea that simply having women in positions of power abolishes patriarchal systems of governance, and shows that the power of patriarchy to persist relies, in part, on its capacity to implicate women in their own subjugation. </span></p> Anthea Feaver ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 Existentialism and Abortion in the Modern World <p>Some people within the abortion debate argue that the key question in the abortion debate is whether the fetus is a human being. They say that if it is not, then abortion is always permissible and does not need any justification; if it is, then there are no circumstances that can ever justify it.</p> <p>I would disagree with this view. I argue that, using an existentialist lens, we can see abortion as the killing of a human being and still accept it. The question surrounding abortion is an existentialist one, not a metaphysical or religious one.</p> <p>I will argue that, using an existentialist framework, abortion should be accepted as an example of freedom and a way to create an individual meaning in a world without absolutes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Samantha Gamero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 “Whereunto I made them no answer, but smiled;” Textual and Ironic Authority in Anne Askew’s Examinations <p>This essay examines the ways in which Anne Askew constructs an authoritative position for herself in her Examinations through the rhetorical placement of her smile. I focus specifically on how her smile acts as a response to her examiner’s questions and reverses the role of power from the male hierarchical position of authority to the subordinate female voice of Early Modern literature. Askew’s smile subverts the expectation of torture and imprisonment being a form of control over the body through her extensive biblical knowledge, use of Socratic irony as a form of response, and ability to manipulate her inferior hierarchical position as a woman and as an individual under interrogation. She carefully shifts the power dynamics throughout the text, using the smile to critique preconceived notions of masculine authority and manipulating the reader’s perception of herself by securing an authoritative position over her examiners. By allowing her readership a privileged understanding of her interrogations through the recordings of her accounts, Askew’s complicated text reveals the value of broadening the sphere of what counts as researchable texts within English departments, allowing a space to study non-traditional literature of Early Modern female authorship.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Katherine Hope ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 For Girls: The Sexual Politics of Girls’ Comics in Post-War Britain <p>This paper will investigate girls’ comics in late 20th century Britain to illuminate the experiences of the adolescent post-war generation. My research focuses on girls’ comics, specifically Bunty, Mandy, and Judy, which were read widely throughout the country. The illustrated stories in these publications typically portrayed teenage girls as the protagonists in a variety of situations and adventures. By using the primary source documents of the comics as the main basis for my research, I explore the following questions: to what extent did the comics reflect the changing assumptions about gender and gender expectations in British society from the 1950s to 1970s? Did girls feel empowered by the stories they read, or did they feel like they had to conform to a certain ideal of womanhood produced by gender norms? How were these ideals configured by race, especially by Caribbean migration in post-war Britain? By examining this small portion of British popular culture and its reception, I will gain a wider understanding of fluid and dynamic ideas about gender in these crucial decades of the late 20th century.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tegwyn Hughes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24 Yoga for Healing: An Analysis of the Effects of Yoga Practices On Military Victims of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder <p>The practice of yoga has been associated with healing and well-being for centuries. With the recent surge in its popularity, research to yoga’s healing properties have found many ways in which it can be incorporated into a wide variety of treatment programs. One area of interest is the treatment of military combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research into the use of yoga as supplemental treatment through its interdisciplinary psychophysical effects and mindfulness training have found it to be extremely beneficial. In this article, the psychophysical aspects of yoga and how they interact the physical and psychological symptoms of PTSD are discussed and linked with the treatment plans used for military veterans. It also addresses the issues of the specific military culture and the pressures associated with fulfilling the valorous role of the perfect solider. Physical effects of yoga help patients with alleviating allosteric load to increase the chances of a healthy recovery and maintaining homeostasis, while the psychological effects include increased levels of mindfulness that help veterans complete trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TFCBT), as well as by regaining their sense of self-control and mastery of psychological processes. With the prevalence of this disorder in the military population along with the comorbidity of suicide, new alternative treatments should be considered to decrease the number of deaths from this devastating disorder. Thus, the psychophysical effect of yoga’s mind-body connection incorporated into military culture can be beneficial to those who have done the ultimate sacrifice for the safety of our country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Meghan O'Sullivan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-24 2018-05-24