Household Production of Ceramic Water Filters in Western Rajasthan, India

Main Article Content

Sandeep Gupta
Raj Kumar Satankar
Amrita Kaurwar
Usha Aravind
Muhammad Sharif
Anand Plappally

Abstract

Frustum shaped clay ceramic water filters are being manufactured by the potters of the Thar Desert in India for household use. The clay composite consists of a homogeneous mixture of equal volume of clay and sawdust. A low-cost manual press, to form the clay composite into frustum shape, is developed by the present authors. This article elaborates critical investigation of the specific traditional clay-firing technique used, to achieve the required functionality and material property of the filters. Household based manufacturing of these filters is found to be markedly different from factory based production by firing process. The functional features of the clay ceramic filter, such as microbial filtration rate, flow rate, and compressive strength, are evaluated and presented. An E. coli bacteria removal efficiency of more than 99% is achieved using these clay ceramic water filters. Optimal filtration rates are achieved between ambient temperatures ranging from 30oC - 40oC.

Article Details

Section
Articles
Author Biography

Sandeep Gupta

Frustum shaped clay ceramic water filters are being manufactured by the potters of the Thar Desert in India for household use. The clay composite consists of a homogeneous mixture of equal volume of clay and sawdust. A low-cost manual press, to form the clay composite into frustum shape, is developed by the present authors. This article elaborates critical investigation of the specific traditional clay-firing technique used, to achieve the required functionality and material property of the filters. Household based manufacturing of these filters is found to be markedly different from factory based production by firing process. The functional features of the clay ceramic filter, such as microbial filtration rate, flow rate, and compressive strength, are evaluated and presented. An E. coli bacteria removal efficiency of more than 99% is achieved using these clay ceramic water filters. Optimal filtration rates are achieved between ambient temperatures ranging from 30oC - 40oC.