Federal Governance 2016-12-14T08:00:47-05:00 Maria Bertel Open Journal Systems The journal is an international online graduate journal about the theory and practice of federalism and publishes its articles on a rolling basis. It is the first graduate journal of federalism with an international team of editors, referees and professors behind it. Allied with the Forum of Federations and founding partner, Institute of Intergovernmental Relations at Queen’s University; Federal Governance aims to contribute to a global dialogue on federalism. Editorial 2016-12-14T08:00:46-05:00 Johanna Schnabel Maria Bertel Editorial 2016-11-30T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Institutionalizing (cross-border) citizenship on subnational level – The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) as new administrative space for participatory and functional governance in Europe 2016-12-14T08:00:46-05:00 Peter Ulrich <p>Cross-border, transnational and interregional cooperation of subnational entities within the European Union have been strengthened <em>politically, legally and financially </em>by the EU and the Council of Europe. Nearly every border region in the EU participates in some form of cooperation structure across borders – mainly due to financial support by the EU joint initiative INTERREG. In general, these Europeanization effects of regional administrative integration have been described by scholars using neofunctionalist (multilevel governance) and intergovernmentalist approaches highlighting the cooperation rationale of cross-border actors.</p><p>The aim of the research project is to go a step ahead following a conceptual shift towards a normative - participatory approach of (cross-border) regional integration. On the basis of the EU legal instrument European Grouping of territorial cooperation (EGTC), processes of re-scaling, re-territorialization and paradiplomacy in a “Europe of the territories” will be analyzed with regard to inclusiveness and modes of subnational participatory governance.</p>In general, policy-making and strategic development of the EU regional policy, particularly the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) are products of a successive bargaining and functional technocratic regulation between the administrative elites within the EU multilevel (supranational, national, subnational) polity excluding the local community. The aim of the research project is thus to elaborate forms and channels of transborder participatory governance in EU transnational spaces and to examine pre-conditions for the establishment of an increased inclusion of a cross-border citizenship. Moreover, it focuses on the problems and obstacles of the institutionalization of deliberative and participatory mechanisms of a subnational citizenship in a postnational multilevel arena.  Finally, the research - that is based on a case study of the EGTC Galicia-Norte de Portugal - analyzes to what extent the EGTC foster both the consolidation of cross-border cooperation and institutionalization of transnational participation on a subnational level. 2016-08-19T10:16:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Procedurally reducing complexity. The practices of German EU policy coordination 2016-12-14T08:00:46-05:00 Yvonne Hegele <p>Policy coordination in federal states is inherently complex because it includes a multitude of actors at the federal and the sub-state level. If the sub-states want their interests to be included in the final decision, they need to coordinate with the federal level but also amongst themselves. Several individual interests areoverlooked easier than coordinated interests of a group of sub-states. This paper puts forward the argument that during the coordination process, the actors from both levels meet in different constellations where they focus on different aspects of coordination, especially on different actors’ interests separately. This is a strategy which enables them to procedurally reduce the complexity of the decision-making process. In order to empirically investigate this argument, first a thorough definition of coordination as process is provided and operationalized for empirical investigation. It is accentuated that coordination as a process has different dimensions which are relevant for the understanding of the coordination process. This argument is analyzedwith the example case of German EU policy. The empirical data used are original expert interviews with German civil servants responsible for EU policy coordination at the sub-state level. It will be demonstrated that the actors strategically form voluntary coordination constellations which enables them to reduce complexity during the process.</p> 2016-08-19T10:16:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Regional implementation of Multi-level Governance Type I – the European Cohesion Policy 2016-12-14T08:00:47-05:00 Romana Salageanu The process of European integration has been promoting subnational mobilization activities in both federal and centralized states. The regions’ activities in Brussels have been pushing forward research on the subnational level. From the conceptual work on multi-level governance as the continuous negotiation taking place at different levels of governments that are nested at different territorial levels, their presence in Brussels has offered regions the possibility to become actors in different constellations. Regions are increasingly acknowledged as political spaces and as active actors within European policies, such as the case of Saxony-Anhalt. The paper deals with the active mobilization of Saxony-Anhalt within the multi-level governance framework of the EU with regard to the development of the European Cohesion policy. 2016-08-19T10:16:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Classifying Cases in Federal Studies. An Illustration of why Political Scientists should do more Cluster Analysis 2016-12-14T08:00:47-05:00 Johanna Schnabel Damien Wirths Typologies are widely used in research on federalism, e.g. to distinguish dual from cooperative or coming-together from holding-together federations. More general, ideal types, archetypes and categories are frequently used in political science research to define concepts and classify cases. As recently as in 2014, Filho et al. pointed out that Cluster Analysis is still hardly used when it comes to developing typologies in political science. Rather, political scientists rely on more intuitive methods or factor analysis. Our paper argues that Cluster Analysis is of great usefulness because it a) focuses on the relationship between cases and not variables and b) draws on empirical data when identifying the clusters. This paper proposes to apply this fruitful approach to the field of federalism to exemplify its major heuristic potential. Furthermore, we emphasize that testing the secondary validity is a crucial step. Our paper provides two original examples from comparative federal politics and public management that illustrate the strength of Cluster Analysis both in testing and generating hypotheses through the establishment of typologies. For both examples, the validity of the Cluster Analysis is tested by checking for correlations between the clusters and the distribution of power. Hence, the typologies established through Cluster Analysis not only define our respective dependent variables related to aspects of intergovernmental coordination within federations and the normative density of evaluation clauses in the Swiss federation, but also offer strong insights in issues of regional autonomy. 2016-08-19T10:16:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cooperation beyond the state: Constraints on linking regional emissions trading systems 2016-12-14T08:00:47-05:00 Charlotte Unger <p>Recently many regions worldwide have implemented emissions trading systems (ETSs) to cap greenhouse gas emissions. These initiatives may hold the potential of providing a new bottom-up architecture for international climate policy. Cooperation or ‘linkage’ between regional emissions trading systems would improve their efficiency. Yet, linking has been realized only on very few occasions.</p><p>This article deals with the question why linking of ETSs, especially between the EU and California, is still lagging behind. It seeks to go beyond common approaches and focuses on political difficulties that arise for regions that do not have the status and the mandate of a nation state.</p> 2016-08-19T10:16:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##