Canada’s Inevitable Evolution Towards Bilateral Spending

Main Article Content

Kymone Fletcher

Abstract

 The federal government should be allowed to provide condition free funding within the provincial jurisdiction. Canada is naturally evolving towards intrastate federalism and a more collaborative government and this evolution has been apparent since the BNA act was formulated.In the BNA act the Canadian provinces were promised ongoing grants/subsidies and we have also seen in Quebec’s case, they opted for a more collaborative form of government for wanting to be represented more at the federal level. It has also been demonstrated that each level of government in Canada’s federal system must be autonomous in its own right or else the system will collapse. Stephen Harper and Justin Trudeau views have also been presented to illustrate this. The cases of the United States and Germany have also been brought up to show that not only Canada, but other federal states are redefining what federalism means and re-interpreting their own respective constitutions to bring this new definition into action. The case of Quebec has also been brought up to demonstrate how the biggest players in the Canadian system, how Canadian policy can be updated to limit the amount of critics towards how the federal power is spending its money. 


 


 


 
 
 

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Baier, Gerald. "The Historical and Contemporary Challenges of Canada’s Division of Powers." In The Ways of Federalism in Western Countries and the Horizons of Territorial Autonomy in Spain, pp. 303-312. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013.

Boadway, Robin W., and Ronald L. Watts. Fiscal federalism in Canada, the USA, and Germany. Queen's University, Institute of Intergovernmental Relations, 2004.

Courchene, Thomas J. "Reflections on the federal spending power: Practices, principles, perspectives." Queen's LJ 34 (2008): 75.

Di Matteo, Livio. "A Federal Fiscal History: Canada, 1867-2017." (2017).

Distribution of Federal Revenues and Expenditures by Province ." LIBRARY OF PARLIAMENT RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS. January 10, 2017. Accessed September 14, 2017. https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2017-01-e.html?cat=economics.

Dunn, Christopher. "Harper without Jeers, Trudeau without Cheers: Assessing 10 Years of Intergovernmental Relations." Institute for Research on Public Policy 8 (2016).

Inwood, Gregory J. Understanding Canadian Federalism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. Pearson Education Canada, 2012.

Lajoie, Andrée. "Current Exercises of the Federal Spending Power: What Does the Constitution Say about Them." Queen's LJ 34 (2008): 141.

Lazar, Harvey. "The Spending Power and the Harper Government." Queen's LJ 34 (2008): 125.

Petter, Andrew. "The Myth of the Federal Spending Power Revisited." Queen's LJ 34 (2008): 163.

 Richard Bird & Almos Tassonyi, “Constraining Subnational Fiscal Behaviour in Canada: 
Different Approaches, Similar Results?,” in Jonathan Rodden, et al., Fiscal Decentralization and 
the Challenge of Hard Budget Constraints (2003), pp. 1-63

Telford, Hamish. "The federal spending power in Canada: Nation-building or Nation-destroying?." Publius: The Journal of Federalism 33, no. 1 (2003): 23-44.

Telford, Hamish, Peter Graefe, and Keith Banting. "Defining the federal government’s role in social policy: The spending power and other instruments." IRPP Policy Matters 9, no. 3 (2008): 108-123.

Petter, Andrew. "The Myth of the Federal Spending Power Revisited." Queen's LJ 34 (2008): 163.